Wednesday, July 31, 2019

Policing Domestic Violence Essay

Domestic violence can be considered to be an act of violence which has been observed to occur in every socio-economic class as well as within all cultures. Domestic violence is defined as a pattern of coercive control that one individual intermittently exerts over another by means of spiritual, emotional, sexual, physical or economic abuse (http://www. dvvap. org/i). This form of exploitation has victimized mostly the women and children and men in much fewer cases and it continues to be perpetrated all over the world. In some regions or nations of the world, domestic violence has become a daily occurrence. Domestic violence leads to very drastic effects on the family, especially if perpetrated on both women and children. When this form of violence is done through physical harm, it results to injury, disability or even death in victims. Mental problems that may also occur usually make the victims feel unloved, lonely and have low self-esteem. Depression occurs in many victims of psychological abuse, which in turn may cause severe isolation of the victims from family and friends. Sexual violence and incest are other forms of domestic violence. In some regions of the world, domestic violence causes continue to rise due to patriarchal, cultural and religious traditions, (Human Rights Watch, 2005. , pp 12). All over the world, different governments handle domestic violence in many ways due to differing views on violence Different proposals have been presented to encourage the governments to have certain views on this form of violence. According to Lisa, domestic violence should be treated as a political and public problem. It should also be viewed as a breach of the human rights. It is a violation of human rights which every individual is entitled to. Those who perpetrate actions of violence against the others should be stopped, (Lisa, H. 78-79). Policing domestic violence refers to a scientifically developed application that aims at solving the domestic violence problem. In the past, it has involved testing of hypothesis in relation to the classification, prediction and the domestic violence prevention. Policing domestic violence policing as a tool of solving domestic violence also experiences several challenges as a crime prevention strategy (Hoctor, M. 53). In order to identify more effective policing strategies for domestic violence prevention and control, a culture of science is very necessary where the strategy integrates trial and error as a norm in crime prevention. The domestic violence policing programs aim at offering support to victims of domestic violence while at the same time preventing domestic violence. However, the public has raised concern about the domestic violence public policy. Lawrence et al states that in the past, the public has been concerned about the domestic violence policy. This is because it is sometimes based on ideology and it lacks evidence based on science. The public advocates for an effective domestic violence policing which should be practical and also be implemented appropriately. This would be a very good measure in preventing domestic violence (Lawrence S. et al, 24). In the last decade, police response to domestic violence has been criticized with a claim that the police did not take violence incidents seriously. However, effective measures to curb domestic violence are being developed and implemented through better policing. In this paper, the domestic violence policing issue will be discussed. The ethical stance of domestic violence in policing will be looked at, as well as the police departments’ responsibility of policing. The past system and current issues arising due to violence will be evaluated. Discussion For effective policing in domestic violence, a cultural evolution in policing needs to be developed in order to support the scientific revolution in order to solve the domestic violence problem. The cultural evolution rapid movement requires a growing partnership between the police and criminologists, public health community officers and professional scientists. Coherence of approach by the different police units to domestic violence is promoted by policy statements or documents where the Police officers introduce the policy documents with varying extent and content. With the increasing reports of domestic violence to the police, the police service has been required to utilize their limited resources to improve domestic violence service delivery to the people. Domestic violence is a great concern for the community where the police intervene in many cases. Whenever the police receive an initial call for assistance, it is their responsibility to provide immediate protection to the victim due to the fact that the police have certain powers which allow them to respond to domestic violence incidents. Whether the victims feel confident in contacting the police departments later in future will depend on how the police perform their tasks when the victim makes the initial contact (Lawrence, S. 126). The police have a major role in arresting criminals or offenders with the perpetrators of domestic violence considered as criminals because they undermine the human rights of the victims. The suspects are usually arrested and charged if there is enough evidence of violence against the victim. However, law enforcement officers should ensure that the suspect’s rights are not violated until the truth is established much later as one of the requirement in the police departmental policy. The police forces have domestic violence policy documents which contain written aims and priorities that are expected to assist them either solve, prevent or reduce domestic violence incidents. The policy documents normally contain the domestic violence definition, its implications, as well as guidance about the various police response components. The responsibility to implement domestic violence policies is something that is shared across a range of the police roles. The policies are very vital in protecting domestic violence victims against actions of exploitation such as domestic violence involving withholding of economic resources from a victim. Some children are even denied education through this form of abuse, as well partners who do not work. This denies the victims their basic needs, which is considered unethical and unacceptable. Domestic violence policing prevents this form of exploitation and instead promotes ethical practices in the society. Through policing, public safety problems are defined, analyzed and effective solutions to the problems addressed. Though the society is responsible for propagating ethics, it sometimes undermines the ethics if it allows domestic violence to occur without taking any action. For instance, in patriarchal societies, men are sometimes allowed to completely dominate over women. This had led to lack of knowledge and empowerment in women to speak out against violence, whereby the victims lack the ability to express their views and opinions with those who do not adhere to this being severely punished through domestic violence. Domestic violence policies have been developed to address such cultural practices with the police ensuring that law enforcement in relation to such policies is carried out. The police department should have the responsibility of policing domestic violence in the community because they are law enforcers who are responsible for ensuring law and order is maintained in the society and the human rights are well protected. Preventing and reducing domestic violence is one of the ways in which the human rights of everyone in the community are protected. For instance in Australia, police powers and procedures are well set out in the Crimes Act 1990(Policing Domestic Violence in New South Wales NSW, 1999). In addition, the police powers can be found in the police guidelines, referred to as Domestic Violence Standard Operating Procedures. Another example can be seen in the US, where the police department has adopted mandatory arrest policy for domestic violence cases. For spousal violence cases, arrest based on probable cause could be done where the Police officers were allowed to arrest suspects without a warrant as long as the officers had probable cause whether he/she had witnessed the incident or not. This was happening in 23 states of the United States of America by the year 2005 (Hoctor, M. 007) Another reason why the police should participate in domestic violence policing is that, the legislation that protects people from domestic violence in most cases directs the police to intervene in protecting the victims of domestic violence. The police have the power to exercise arrest of criminals or offenders when need be. In policing domestic violence, domestic violence incidents should be stopped as soon as possible making the arrest of offenders by the police an effective means of stopping domestic abuse. This therefore makes it their vital responsibility in policing domestic violence with the responsibility aiming at stopping the conflict, as well as protecting and ensuring the immediate safety for the victims. As law enforcers, the police have a responsibility to ensure criminals are charged in court which mitigates future abuse. The police department receives reports on domestic violence from the community members and then investigates the cases to establish the cause of the abuse, the effects and the victim or offender. After establishing the facts about a case, offenders are charged in court. For instance policies allow police officers to apply for an apprehended violence order (AVO), which guides the judicial process (Lawrence, S. 101). Good police service initiatives in the police departments that enhance awareness in people about violence and service delivery show that they should have a good responsibility in domestic violence policing. The police departments in many nations have instituted the initiatives as a result of their recognition that a high percentage of people in our community are now aware that domestic violence is a crime. These initiatives include, public awareness through advertising campaigns, placement of domestic violence liaison officers (DVLO), specialized training for officers, working with the Attorney General and the development of COPS (Computerized Operational Policing system) to produce statistics relevant to the development of effective domestic violence prevention measures. The initiatives are a good indication of how effective the police department can be in domestic violence policing. The domestic violence issue has attracted widespread public concern, in the past and also in the current world. However, the past system differs with the current system in relation to how policing in domestic violence was/is handled. In the past, the number of domestic violence cases that were reported was fewer than the current number of the cases reported to the police. The continued increase of the reported cases in turn has necessitated the development of measures that will curb the violence effectively. This has led to the development of new measures/policies to address this problem. However, in the past, this problem was not handled with much seriousness as it is now which made the past system less effective in domestic violence policing. Cultural beliefs and practices in the past contributed to continued domestic abuse, because the victims were sometimes convinced that they deserved to be abused. Different societies have changed their beliefs towards domestic violence over time with people become more aware of domestic violence as a crime currently, which has greatly assisted in effective domestic violence policing. People are more willing to speak out about this issue in the modern world as compared to the past years. Modern police service initiatives have enhanced better domestic violence policing as compared to the past system of policing. For instance placement of domestic violence liaison officers (DVLO) in the local areas as a modern initiative has made it easy for people to report violence cases. In addition, offenders are easily apprehended and charged for their offences. In the past, lack of awareness in some victims and the community as a whole in policing encouraged continued abuse because the offender had no action taken against them. Current systems have developed specialized training for officers, which involves training of officers in response to domestic violence and other issues that surround domestic violence. On the other hand, the past systems did not have such training programs. The standard operating procedures (SOP) launching together with the development of computerized operational policing system (COPS) have been very instrumental in adoption of effective domestic violence policing measures in the modern systems (Policing Domestic Violence in New South Wales NSW,1999). The domestic violence policing have also experienced several problems. The policing may lack inadequate support which may in turn undermine how effective the policing can be in solving domestic violence. The police officers who handle domestic violence cases have been accused of not providing the involved parties with enough information and sometimes they have an inappropriate attitude towards the victims. In addition, they have shown unsympathetic, rude and indifferent behavior towards the victims. Nevertheless, solutions to these problems have been integrated in domestic violence policing programs to ensure domestic violence is prevented. Though domestic violence prevention measures were present in the past, current measures have been developed to improve on the past strategies

Amazon.Com’s European Distribution Strategy

Amazon Amazon is one of the biggest and most famous online stores in the world. It is divided into several independent organizations like Amazon Europe, Amazon US and Amazon Japan. Amazon was founded in 1995 by Jeff Bezos. At the beginning it was just a platform for selling books at soon it became the world’s biggest bookstore with up to 2,5 million different titles. Their strategy was clear and easy: hold modest inventories and rely on wholesalers. The wholesaler can fulfill the order quickly while Amazon employees pick and pack the order and ship it to the customer.In 1996 Amazon grew really quickly by expansion of their distribution center, increasing number of titles and software development. In 1998 they were not longer a bookshop any more but expanded their product lines to music and videos. However, they had to face tough competition, especially in 1998. So remain the leader of theonline stores Amazon decided to pursue a â€Å"get big fast† strategy to increase t heir revenue. Therefore they added new product lines and adapted its supply chain and distribution network.One big decision was also where they should locate their distribution center and how many they should build. Amazons pick was a distribution center in Nevada, Kansas and Dallas. Soon also three more centers were added to serve the Midwest and the Southeast. The next step was to choose which product types each of the distributions centers should carry. After that they had to make a decision regarding the equipment in the new distribution centers and the technology used in their warehouses.Finally, to maintain high levels of quality and productivity in its distribution centers, Amazon developed key metrics to measure worker performance, including number of items picked per hour, free replacement rate, inventory accuracy, number of hours from order confirmation to shipment, and cost per unit shipped. Performance information was routinely shared with individual workers. In 2000 the new Vice President of Operations Wilke started with teaching the staff to use a special method to reduce variations and defects.This approach was later also used to improve the inventory record accuracy. Moreover, Wilke hired staff to stimulate holiday season conditions and he made arrangements for additional storage capacity. On top of that Wilke also focused on inventory optimization in the fulfillment network. To have the products at the right time available will easily decrease Amazons inventory costs. There were several ideas to improve the inventory management: 1)Refine the software used to forecast customer demand )Establish buying rules to better allocate volumes among wholesalers 3)Integrate its supply management system with its own inventory, warehouse and transportation system 4)Implement buying rules to determine which supplier offers the best price and delivery options 5)Having â€Å"drop ship† orders which means that the product is directly shipped to the custo mer without going through an Amazon distribution center 6)Partner with other companies, with Amazon handling order fulfillment and the partner covers the costs for the inventoryThe last two points were just idea and never realized. Amazon entered Europe through the two countries Germany and the UK. To enter those markets Amazon acquired a leading online store in each country and the two sites were re- launched under the Amazon brand. In 2000 Amazon continued its expansion and entered France. They did not use the same strategy as in Germany and the UK, but build their site from scratch. However, there were several challenges to enter the European market. They had to be aware of the cultural differences in Europe.First, Amazon adapted their website always a little bit to the needs of the country; secondly, they needed to address the selling regulations in each country. Another very important point was the payment options. Because there were not many people in Europe using credit card they had to offer local paying possibilities. On top they recognized that it was impossible to replicate the US procurement strategy in Germany and France because of different supplier market factors. To implement these strategic choices Amazon in Germany, France and the UK were managed as independent Amazon subsidiaries.Each country has its own organizations and was headed by a country manager and every country has its own warehouse. Amazon also was evaluating opportunities to expand in other European countries. Amazon Europe needed to build up its infrastructure to support this ambitious vision. In June 2002, Tom Taylor was transferred from Seattle to London to address some of these issues. In the longer term, Taylor wondered which infrastructure would best support Amazon Europe’s growth potential. Amazon’s decentralized fulfillment model seemed to offer opportunities for rationalization and cost savings.One option was to link all distributions centers. The other opt ion was to keep the three distribution centers. There were also different options about the inventory in these three centers. One could hold the inventory in all three centers or just in selected ones. Another question was regarding the location of the distribution centers. Solution First there was the option of only one distribution center in Europe. This strategy certainly has advantages with regard to lower overhead costs, simplified internal communication, and increased bargaining power due to higher allocation volumes.Considering only the difficulties already encountered in attempting to coordinate national postal carriers for a trustworthy delivery service to international customers, the option to centralize delivery from the UK to all European markets would be a step in the wrong direction. This was a clear difference to the US market; where there was only one postal service serving the entire nation. Express delivery would further complicate matters, as European markets vari ed with regard to provider and service, another problem not encountered in the US.Since delivery time and quality are crucial to success at Amazon, this restructuring option was quickly eliminated from the list of alternatives. The division of Europe into North/South or East/West sectors, to be served by two Distribution Centers, would likely reduce delivery times in many markets and eliminate some of the difficulties associated with the single DC alternative. Compared to the current structure, cost savings could be achieved and activities could be bundled according to regional demands or opportunities (i. e. egal or financial flexibility). This structure would emulate the solution realized in the initial growth period in the US, where a DC was located on each coast, however there would be similar problems as noted above with the coordination of national postal carriers. Another primary difference compared to the US market could be seen with regard to regional consumer preferences a nd tastes. While the US product selection was largely similar, and a common language was used throughout, product selection and language differs from country to country in Europe.Expectations with respect to delivery time, service, payment methods, etc. also vary greatly among European markets and do not compare to the credit card-friendly and on-line purchase-accustomed customers in the US. A two-DC solution may likely not be able to offer the flexibility needed to serve the individual European markets properly. Considering that the three European locations are fully-functional, another alternative would be to simply keep the existing facilities while reallocating services and processes according to cost and service factors.One obvious advantage would be recognized in not needing to relocate or build/acquire new infrastructure. Activities could be spread among the three locations, for example books, media and smaller items in France, Marketplace headquarters in the UK, and bulk or special order items in Germany. This would allow for specialization of services and a clear distinction of functions for management of operations in Europe. In contrast, all services could continue to be provided in all locations, with the addition of products and Marketplace activities in each of the three.Expansion into further markets may be allocated to one of the DC's according to geographic proximity or if applicable, according to financial or logistical aspects. Disadvantages include duplication of activities and infrastructure, increased demand for management and personnel, and the administration/coordination of multiple and varying IT systems (including the integration of manual and automated systems). Our team of analysts proposes a solution which integrates components from each of the aforementioned alternatives.Due to the fact that consumer preferences and expectations vary significantly among markets, and since delivery systems are also not consistent from country to co untry, each market should be served as locally as possible. This does not exclude the option of bundling some functions in specific locations; in fact this should be undertaken. Marketplace activities, for instance, shall be centralized in the UK, since this activity mainly is based on and requires IT functionality.The central functions Customer Service and Procurement also shall be allocated to the UK. With respect to the expansion of product lines, this should be done according to regional/international classification. Items which are non-country or language specific, such as CD's, electronics, hardware, etc. can be allocated and administered at a central European location; in this case France may be selected. Bulk items would be the responsibility of a continental-based facility as well, preferably Germany due to its central location.Any country or language-specific items, i. e. books, fashion apparel, home decor, etc. shall be administered in mini-DC's located within each market . This would assure the â€Å"local touch† required by customers, and would allow for more effective negotiations with local market suppliers. Newly added markets could first be served from the existing three, with the establishment of a mini-DC in the market as soon as the product volume, logistic opportunities and demands, as well as customer buying behaviors are sufficient to justify local investment.Without a doubt, the solution our group has provided leads to higher costs and increased complexity in a number of areas. However, the underlying principle was to devise a way to build the brand and company image in a similar way that was successful in the US market – serving the customer in a quick and simple way. At the same time, the bundling of core functions offers an opportunity to reduce costs and redundancy.

Tuesday, July 30, 2019

Curling Up with a Book

Curling up with a book requests time and solitude, demands our full attention and requires us to get into the reading. First of all, in order to curl up with a book, one should be isolated in his/her free time when there are no disturbances at all. It's necessary to read in your free time because It Is the time when you have nothing on mind. This Is very helpful since our mind would be empty of Issues and worries of our dally life. It also needs a comfortable place and environment to be able to focus on the reading; It Is necessary to be alone when It comes for reading.It has happened to me that I can't read anything in the college because there have been a lot of distractions; for example, the noisy atmosphere, electronic devises, too many people walking by and others. I'd rather wait until I arrive at my house; I would immediately go to my room with no interruptions, so I can read in silence and concentrate. Carol Shields (1997) explain that being lonely is necessary when one reads . It is not something to pity about as compared when someone is eating alone in the restaurant or watching the movie alone on a Valentine's Day.Solitary reading is the first requirement to curl up with a kook: â€Å"Our hearts go out to them, but reading, by definition, can only be done alone. I would Like to make the case today for solitary time, for a life with space enough to curl up with a book† (p. 248). Then one should pay full attention on the reading. We can do multicasts In many ways, for Instance, we watched television while we are eating or we listen to music while we are solving some math problems. We can do all of this at the same time, except when we are reading.When we read, we should focus to one point and one straight line. Don't let anything that can make you lose track easily. It is not recommended to read in the Internet because it is very disturbing whereas holding a book is much more real and potent. Losing concentration is very easy in the Internet beca use someone can send you an instant message, and you might want to surf for a while in the web. However, reading a book is always better; reading can take readers to an imaginary place that the Internet can never take you.Although the Internet provides us with many deferent kind of information, reading through the website will never give us the experiences and feelings that a book can give us. For example, when we read, we are connected with he reading since we are actually touching the book; also we can easily dullness the author's perspective. Just like the author Carol Shields (1997) said that we can bytes and texts; also by reading we can find out the tone, formal order, voice and the persuasion of the reading: â€Å"A written text, as opposed to electronic information, has formal order, tone, voice, irony, persuasion.We can inhabit a book; we can possess it and be possessed by it† (p. 249). Finally when someone reads, one should be part of the reading; furthermore, someo ne can get inside the reading and experience special linings and moments along with the main character. For instance, I have experienced this when I read â€Å"I'm a Banana and Proud of It† by Ways Choc; I felt like I was in the author's position since I also look like a Chinese, but my native country is not China.Nowadays, adults are so busy that they have almost no time to think of reading a book. They have more important things to do and to worry of, especially for the people that are not wealthy. The students are also occupied in their study, and if they ever have time, they will spend it in their social life rather than staying at home to read a book. Overall, curling up with a book is like being lost in a book. In order to comprehend deeply a reading, it is essential to be lone with our blank mind, to have full concentration and to feel part of the reading.We can feel free, imagine intensely and experience something beyond the real word through reading. Everyone needs r eading in their life. It's so vital for our mind and body. Almost all the knowledge that one can get comes from reading. That is why reading is such a wonderful activity to do since it broadens our knowledge and experience. Reference Shields, C. (1997). The case for curling up with a book. In G. Disgusts & J. J. Me (Des. ) Refining reading writing. (up. 248-250). Toronto: Nelson Thomson.

Monday, July 29, 2019

Is it ethical to hire illegal immigrants in Hospitality Industry Essay

Is it ethical to hire illegal immigrants in Hospitality Industry - Essay Example But it is becoming more important now with the population topping 300 million and concerns f illegal immigration becoming a hot issue. Legal immigrants are far more accepted in the country than immigrants who enter the country illegally across the borders or water barriers. But like most concerns the nation is facing, illegal immigration has both upsides and downsides to the issue. Being a legal immigrant is a much smoother road than entering the nation illegally. Many legal immigrants enter this country to take advantage f job opportunities that are not available in their home country or to further their education at our Universities. A large number f them are employed in the hospitability industry. In fact, with each new generation f recent immigrants the average education has been rising. Legal immigrants entering the U.S. with a degree past High School is increasing. This means these people are not coming to America in search f an unskilled position such as a manual laborer or minimum wage cashier, they will be filling positions higher up in companies that may be in need f someone with these types f postgraduate educations. This also implies that these people are motivated and ready to adapt to any type f occupational environment they have been educated in. These legal immigrants want to work and want to provide a better life for themselves, their family, and the next generation to come. They like to work in hotels and restaurants because they find a good environment there especially those are studying. Studies also show that the first and second generations f immigrants do better in school than their American native counterparts and get more education-related awards. ( With all f these advantages in education that legal immigrants bring, it seems that they will do their part in furthering the growth and evolution f America and its economy. Illegal immigrants, on the other hand, usually do not have most f the immediately visible advantages that legal immigrants possess. Here in the U.S. we get many f our illegal immigrants crossing the border from Mexico to the United States or coming to our country from Cuba. An estimated 700,000 immigrants enter the United States illegally every year. Many f them are undereducated; in fact 67% f the illegal immigrant populations that enter the U.S. have less than a High School education.( Since these immigrants are undereducated they usually end up with jobs in that involve unskilled manual labor and will work for fewer wages than Americans. This has recently brought the issue f illegal immigration to the front f many political debates. With 12-20 million illegal aliens residing in the United States today, many politicians and lawmakers considered amnesty and employer sanctions as options to deal with the problem. Amnesty has been used in the past. The United States passed the Immigration Reform Control Act in 1986 which granted amnesty to over 2.25 million illegal immigrants employed in the U.S., along with employer sanctions and better border enforcement. (Djajic, Slobodan P. 605) Since they were employed, policy-makers at the time felt that they should at least make them citizens so that they can pay taxes on their income. But it does seem to send a contradictory message when at the same time you make laws that punish employers for hiring the illegal immig

Sunday, July 28, 2019

Analyse Health Information Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Analyse Health Information - Assignment Example As damage increases, more of the lipoproteins accumulate in the intima causing atheroma. The condition worsens with time as more lipids accumulate even outside the macrophages, because of this; the macrophages stimulate production of collagen that covers the lipids making the streaks become fibrous. This weakens the endothelial wall causing ulcerations, platelets aggregations and formation of thrombus (Marieb, 2014). a.) Components of neurovascular observation. To conduct a neurovascular observation and make correct documentation, the components to assess are color and warmth, for which inspection of color and feeling for the warmth is dome. The temperatures are compared with the normal wrist; capillary refill is assessed by pressing the nail bed and assessing the time taken for blood to fill the capillaries, normal time is less than 3 seconds; pain score and joint movement are done to assess the extent of injury; peripheral sensation is also assessed to verify the presence or absence of nerve injury (Tollefson et al., 2012). To prepare the patient for x-ray, the nurse requires first to inform the client concerning the procedure so that they can make an informed decision. A signing of a written consent follows this. This must be documented in the patient file and signed. The patient is scheduled for x-ray at 9.15 am; the vital signs at this time indicate mild hyperthermia of 38.1Â °C and slight hyperventilation with a respiration rate of 25 breaths per minute. All other observations are within normal range. With an ADDS score of 2, the patient is not in an acute condition, and any nurse can escort him for the radiology test (Preece et al., 2010). With atheroma, blood clotting forms in the large vessels. This is due to platelets aggregation along the weakened portions of the endothelium. As the heart pumps blood around the body, the clots dislodge and are carried to other parts of the body. If the

Saturday, July 27, 2019

One page summary ( to be free nation) Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 250 words

One page summary ( to be free nation) - Essay Example were more affluent, funded the movement of Jews development by financing educational institutes and buying lands in Palestine where Jews workers could be gainfully employed. Hess’ vision of independent Jewish nation was perhaps the key aspect that encouraged Zionists to strive for independent state where Jews could be their own master and live in peace. Herzl, in 1880s, was a dynamic Jewish leader, who had organized the first Jewish movement by forming World Zionist Organization which significantly contributed to the inception of the socio political ideology of a free Jewish nation. The emergence of various Jewish leaders like Syrkin, Ahmad Ha-Am and others influenced migration of Jews to Jerusalem and exhorted the Jews to work in collectives for improved farming. At the same time, they also prepared militarily for any confrontation with Arabs. The WWI was important because while it destroyed the flourishing Jewish communities in Palestine, the intervention of Britain in the land augmented the development of community through increased education facilities, work opportunities, including buying of land. WWII was significant in its holocaust of Jews by Hitler which precipitated the need for independent Jewish State. After the war, with the intervention of United Nations and support of America, independent state of Jews, Israel, was f ormed by partitioning

Friday, July 26, 2019

The Suffrage of women through the 1800s-1900s Research Paper

The Suffrage of women through the 1800s-1900s - Research Paper Example The delicacy of women was overemphasized and their abilities to play a significant role in the development and progress of the society were underestimated. Since they were considered to be in need of help, support and care, they were not offered a chance to work and support their family. They had been mistreated in a number of ways for a long period of time. They were suppressed to the extent that they were not allowed to cast their vote to represent their opinion in the political elections. Circumstances continued to remain like this until the 20th century when the women’s rights to cast their vote were finally recognized in different parts of the world after a series of events of struggle made by the women of that period. (, 1995). Not only that, the 20th century brought a large number of other opportunities for the women which they had been longing for so long over the past centuries, which included and were not limited to educational and work related opportuniti es. This paper aims at analyzing the history of efforts women have made to get their rights acknowledged world wide in the 19th and the 20th century with special reference to the American Suffrage Movement. â€Å"Women of the 19th and 20th century are pioneers in the international recognition of gender equality and women’s rights†. In ancient periods, women were considered as the fundamental cause of various evils that existed in the ancient societies. Women were largely recognized as inferior to men, both physically and emotionally. And this concept was not confined to any particular country. Instead, women were looked down at nearly all over the world. This is evident from the Greek myth, according to which a woman named Pandora opened a box that brought sadness and diseases for the men. (Gupta, 2010). In India, women were burnt alive together with the dead-body of their husbands as per the Hindu customs. If left alive, they were

Business Proposal Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Business Proposal - Essay Example New business developments have been shaping up, outdoing and replacing the old ways and bringing on board new ways of operations. With the help of Internet, consumers now can have much more choice for their shopping than was the case previously. It also changed enterprise’s business model, saving cost and more efficiency than before. Businesses enjoy the ease of making money and advertising because of going the e-way. Trading and information exchange is faster and the traditional business mode has had a complete revolution because of the e-business. More companies try to design a good e-business plan for survival in competition and many good samples lead the industry developing fast. E-business brings innovation to the otherwise normal business transactions leading to greater gains for the companies/businesses adopting it. E-commerce reduces cost, unnecessary value-added links and makes company respond directly to their customers. However, there are the set business ethics, co nducts and regulations that must apply even over the online business dealings. As one intends to venture into this kind of trade, specific procedures are bound to apply. Introduction: In order to add capacity or improve capabilities of functionality of an organization that deals with sale of books and such materials that can be converted into audio form, and having not to invest in new infrastructure, the emerging trend is in adopting the online strategy. It is a welcome to small businesses and such low capital ventures, which would be interested in extending the business operations across borders yet with low operating costs. It is most appropriate especially to avoid the extra high costs that are associated with setting up physical infrastructure at different geographical locations. It is also a business opportunity, which can be ventured into either privately or collaboratively (private hosting or public hosting). It has the basic advantage of not being limited by business hours and the purchase of goods the services can be done over 24 hours. However, operating an E-Commerce Website business faces the critical challenge in security matters where as a host, one must ensure the security and confidentiality of customers’ information in the highest levels possible besides putting into place reliable mechanisms to ensure ease of funds transfer. The industrial as well as scientific communities are seen to adopt E-Commerce Website offering such services as library services with conversion of hard copy books into the audio services with relatively high regard as the concept is receiving wide acknowledgement. The business sector has the main objectives of E-Commerce Website for audio books are to provide safe, fast and reliable library services over the internet connections. This critical niche provides a whole range of untapped potential in this era of technological advancement where merely all businesses are adopting information technology for the purposes of their operations. The concerns of

Thursday, July 25, 2019

The Paths of Art and Science Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

The Paths of Art and Science - Essay Example Science needs art to illustrate the concepts and discoveries in a way that can be conceptualized by a viewer. Microbiology, deep space, sub atomic physics, and light beyond the visual spectrum all require an artist's rendition. As art strives to tell us more about who we are and describe the world around us, the artist relies on science to discover what that world is. Music and perspective require extensive math, while artists demand a better understanding of nature and the nature of life. Beauty in art is a perceived notion based in the observer's experience and comprehension of the art. The beauty in science is only evident to those who have a deep enough understanding of the subject to appreciate its truth. Yet, both are concerned with describing our universe in a way that is accurate, intuitive, and leaves us with a deeper understanding of who we are and what it means to be a part of the universe. Today's art depends on many scientific and technological advancements as new mediums and methods become available. The cinema, with special effects, is filled with technology. New methods of creation and the effects of widespread distribution impact music, sculpture, and literature. Science education benefits from the use of artistry in the classroom. Literature often relies on science to tell an accurate story, while science depends on the writer to craft the words to make the

Wednesday, July 24, 2019

Human service professional Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Human service professional - Essay Example Hence, strong networking skills and communication become vital tools to build constructive relationship with the employees to gain their trust. In the era of rapid globalization, workforce is distinct in its diversity. To create a cohesive and empowered team, cross cultural understanding is very important issue. I need to be more proactive in my effort to not only gain the confidence of workers but also ensure that workers also develop understanding of different cultures and teamwork is enhanced through mutual respect and collective decisions. A cohesive workforce is able to make valuable contribution to the goals and objectives of the organization. This was proved when there was conflict of views between two workers who were from different culture. I was able to resolve the issue primarily because I had understanding of their cultures and was able to convince them as to how they can together work for improved result. This was also a prime case of clash of values: personal and professional values. One of the workers was of Chinese origin and other was American. American professionals give great credence to time and efficiency whereas Chinese believe that developing personal relationship greatly improves outcome. So when new product was to be launched, American executive was quite upset with his Chinese counterpart as he was insisting that people who would be the prospective users need to be informed about it. He believed that prior relationship building effort would help to give clue to develop better marketing strategy. While time is important factor but relationship building is equally critical. Bringing them together and sharing each other’s concern helped to resolve the issue. The launch was a thumping success. One of the most urgent needs of the organizations is to create a learning environment for its workforce. I have strong networking skills and therefore, it becomes easier

Tuesday, July 23, 2019

Unit 1 Project Overview Coursework Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Unit 1 Project Overview - Coursework Example ronments namely; people, staffing and management,IT and communications, human resources development and training, materials, manufacturing and production, materials, manufacturing and production etc. and anything else which requires planning and managing within businesses. In recent past, British Airways hired a new managing director. When this managing director started, he realized that the firm was not effective and was wasting valuable resources. To make the company more cost-effective, this managing director resolved to reshape the entire company. He noticed that the best approach to do this was via a change methodology management plan. Methodically, the firm started reducing its employees. However, before this was done, via his change management leadership, the managing director gave the organization the reasons for the reorganization and privatization of the firm so as to prepare them for the impending change. Therefore, through leadership and communication, managing director directed his organization through a tough time that could have been harmful without effective change management resistance communication (Burke, 2013). One constraint in this environment that would affect the success of the project is lack of enough resources to pay the workers being laid off. The other constraint is communication deficit – where project manager fails to provide appropriate information to enough people, along with the lack of a structure or culture for effective communication. 2) Reflect on the various roles discussed dealing with how project managers respond to change. Describe an instance involving change, in which you should have or did model the way as a project manager. Explain what you learned from this experience. The British Airways is ineffective and is wasting valuable resources. To return the company to profitability, as the company project manager who is responding to this change I have to decide to change the entire company. This can be achieved

Monday, July 22, 2019

Human resource management Essay Example for Free

Human resource management Essay The hr map can be found on the cipd website. It consists of 10 professional areas, 8 behaviourOur HR Profession Map sets out what HR practitioners need to know, do and deliver at all stages in their career, be they specialists or generalists, working in the UK or internationally. It sets the benchmark for HR excellence both for the individual and the HR function.The Map is firmly rooted in the real world having been created with HR practitioners drawn from every size of organisation and across every sector. Structured around the ten professional areas of HR activity it focuses on the knowledge, activities and behaviours required in the profession today and in the future.It provides you with the means to drive your own career and professional goals and underpins all we provide from our qualifications and membership through to our in-house training provision. core area and they are across 4 bandsHolliday Grainger The two core areas are applicable to everyone no mztter what stage you at with your own hr career. What is the Profession Map and what is its purpose? The CIPD Profession Map sets out comprehensively how HR adds the greatest sustained value to the organisation it operates in, now and in the future. It describes the highest standards of professional competence for the organisation.It captures what successful and effective HR people do and deliver across every aspect and specialism of the profession, and sets out the required underpinning skills, behaviour and knowledge. The Map is used to develop products and services that not only support the profession as a whole but also support and accelerate the professional development of individuals, for example, My HR Map, which is an online self-assessment tool that provides practical recommendations and solutions to help achieve professional goals and support career development.Back to top 2. Is the Profession Map available to members and non-members? Yes. The Profession Map is available in full to both members and non-members.Back to top 3. How have you developed the Profession Map? The Map was developed following an extensive review of the global HR Profession and an in-depth investigation involving detailed interviews with HR directors across all main economic sectors and scores of senior professionals and academics.We investigated the impact of the HR function on the sustainability of business success and as a result the Map represents the needs of the profession today and will evolve over time to respond to further changes and demands in the business and the profession. Based on research and collaboration with organisations around the world, and continuously reviewed and updated with our research, essentially CIPD’s Profession Map shares what the most successful HR professionals know and do at every stage of their career, which is proving to be a powerful tool. A wide range of organisations and HR professionals are now using the CIPD’s HR Profession Map to benchmark and build their HR capability at individual, team and organisation levels.Back to top 4. What are the key components that make up the Profession Map? There are three main sections to the Map:Professional areas There are 10 professional areas within the Map. The two core professional areas Insights, Strategy and Solutions and Leading HR sit at the heart of the profession and are applicable to all HR professionals regardless of role, location or stage of career, whether inside organisations or working with them. For each particular area the Map describes what you need to do (the activities) and what you need to know at four bands of professional competence, as well as outlining the predominant behaviours that you need to exhibit when carrying out the activities. Find out more about the Professional AreasBehaviours Within this section the Map describes the behaviours needed to carry out activities in more detail. Each behaviour is also divided into four bands of professional competence (spanning from entry level to leadership roles). Each behaviour also lists a number of contra indicators which illustrate negative behaviour.Find out more about the BehavioursBands and transitions There are four bands of professional competence to reflect the hierarchy of the profession within the Map. The Map also identifies and describes how you need to change and develop to move from one band to another.Find out more about the BandsBack to top 5. What is a contra indicator? Contra indicators are listed in each of the Behaviours. They illustrate negative behaviour.Back to top 6. Who is the Profession Map for? The Map has been developed with both individuals and organisations in mind. It’s a vital resource for anyone working in or connected with the HR profession.From Band 1 at the start of an HR career through to Band 4 for the most senior leaders, it has been designed to be relevant and applicable to all professionals working across the HR spectrum; so, whether you are a generalist or a specialist (in learning and development, talent, reward, employee relations and engagement, resourcing or OD), wherever you are operating in the world, whatever sector and/or size of your organisation, the Profession Map is for you.Find out how you can use the Map The bands go from1 to 4, 1 being the start of your hr carerr and 4 being the , leader kf the hrfunction involved in long term planning and creation of strategies. The behaviours display each behViour expected from a hr professional. The map is also broken down

Sunday, July 21, 2019

Observation Report of Child Example

Observation Report of Child Example Ethical considerations checklist Has the whole team been informed about the portfolio requirements? Have you made clear that all members concerned in the observation will have access to the material? Have the nature of the observations (including aims, tools to be used) been  explained to the children/ young people (where applicable)? Have you considered the importance of respecting the child/ young persons privacy, dignity and possible emotional reactions? Have parents been informed- and has the study process been fully explained to  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚   them? Have you confirmed that all details will remain confidential by ensuring all documents are anonymous? Date: 10 January 2017 Dear parents/guardian I am writing to ask for permission to observe your child as part of my university course. All information about your child would be kept as confidential. Thank you for your support. I †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦. give permission to †¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.. to observe my child Sign†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦.Date†¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¦ Name of observer: Aamna. (nursery nurse) Name of child: child A Date of observation: 4/01/17 Starting time: 3:30pm Finishing time: 3:40pm No of adults involved: 1 No of children involved: 3 Area of observation: home corner, constructive area, quite area and mathematic area (indoors) Aim: to observe child A while playing Objective: to analyse how child A interacts with others This is a brief snap of child A interacting with adults and other individuals within the setting. Its a Wednesday afternoon just after teatime and child A begins to play with child B who is the same age as child A. Child A starts in the home corner and continues the day playing with other activities. Child A begins to play in the home corner area and pretends to be a policeman and says hands up to himself. Child A appears to be searching for something and pulls out a police uniform jacket and he proceeds to put the jacket on himself inside out, he then looks under the other uniform jackets. I interrupt child A and ask him what he is looking. He does not respond, he finds a briefcase with pretend injections, bandages and a stethoscope. He then takes the policeman jacket and places it back in the correct place. Child A picks the stethoscope and places it around his neck backwards. He looks down at a doctors shirt and grabs the shirt briskly with one hand and quickly clutches it close to his chest. Child A then attempts to put the shirt on, he starts by putting his right arm into the right sleeve and the left arm into the left sleeve. He then pulls it down from the back and closes the buttons starting from the bottom up to the top. Once he has completed closing the buttons he stops and sighs out loud with his hands on his waist. He then sits on the floor with his legs crossed and wiggles his bottom. Child A places the diaphragm on child Bs shoulder, child B then places the diaphragm part on left side of his chest demonstrating, as child B lets go of the stethoscope child A takes it off his chest and tries to put it on himself. Child A attempts then to put it on Child B again the same way child B demonstrated but still puts it the other way round with the diaphragm on child Bs shoulder again. Child A sighs and throws the stethoscope onto the floor with force, after throwing the stethoscope he crosses his arms and frowns at the ground with his eyes towards the floor. From the corner of his eye he slowly looks around, as he slowly looks up again he notices me looking at him. He begins to smile and takes the stethoscope from the floor and apologises to the stethoscope. He now looks up at child B walking towards the constructive area and walks after him. As he walk s towards the constructive area with his hands swinging from left to right and proceeds to sit on his knees and grabs onto a toy car with his left hand and says look I have a blue car, what colour do you have?. Child B responds by saying my car is green, I have this one at home and child A nods his head up and down. Child A suddenly jumps up and runs towards the quite area and begins spinning three times with his hands swinging up and down, he falls onto his knees whilst laughing and says wow Im dizzy.   He jumps right up with his hands in the air and continues spinning round. He catches his breath and places his hands onto his head whilst attempting to sit back on the floor and makes a woo woo sound.   He moves his head round repeatedly but this time in slow motion with his eyes closed. After two full minutes he stands up and   choses another table activity. Now Child A proceeds to the mathematic table which contains unifix cubes. Child A stands still with his right hand on t he side of his head and looks around the table and finds a seat and walks towards it, he pulls the seat and sits then, puts both of his legs under the table he then places both hands at the sides of the chair and tucks himself under the table. He reaches out for the cubes which are placed in the middle of the table. Child C snatches the unifix cubes from child As hands, child A looks directly at child C face and says sharing is caring with his hands on his waist with his left eyebrow raised. Child C gives the cubes back into child As hand Child A then starts to attach each unifix cube together. While picking up the cubes he says the colours of the cubes and the number of how many cubes there are in a low toned voice one is yellow, two is green and three is red, he continues up to ten then looks around to see if anyone is looking at him with his head down and rolls his eyes to the right corner of his eyes. With the unifix cubes he builds a long line and says this is the wall in my ga rden and its big, big, big. As he uses the word big he moves his right hand up on top of his head. After creates a oval shape and claims to say its a hippopotamus by saying Im a hippopotamus and you cant catch me in a deep voice with his hands by his side and rocks on his chair from left to right. Child A separates the cubes one by one and places the cube back into the middle of the table. He stands up and walks behind the chair and tries to tuck it under the table using both of his hands on the sides of the chair and crouches down. He now stands back up and runs towards the writing area and picks a colour pencil and a piece of paper for himself and for child B, then walks back to the mathematics area. As he gives the coloured pencil to child B he says here you go and passes on the pencil to child B. He then starts to draw lines with a red colour pencil onto a piece of paper, he grips the colour pencil by placing the all four fingers and his thumb sticking out towards him with his right hand and says look the cubes are like the cubes I made before to child B with a smile. Child B attempts to hold the coloured pencil, the pencil keeps falling out of his hands and ends up onto the floor. Child A looks at the floor to pick the pencil up for child B and helps child B on how to hold the pencil as he says this is how you hold it in your hand. Child A was included as the socially active child in this scenario of observation. The social, personal and emotional development can be noted through observing the behaviour, responses, and interaction with the other children within this setting. I would describe child A to be going through various stages of developmental experiences, and learning curves.   The theorist Jean Piaget   suggests four types of stages for cognitive development, in my observation it would specifically be looking at the preoperational stage (2-7 years). Within this stage Piaget speaks about the children of this age group that are able to analyse symbolically. In the first area of observation in the home corner, for when child A is experimenting with the police uniforms and the doctors briefcase child A seems to show a general awareness of the nature of a stethoscope and its connection to the doctors shirt which he wore prior to selecting the instrument this would symbolise that he might have a interest to work within healthcare for example. This kind of imaginative play could perhaps influence their occupation as they grow older. In this area Child A faces his first interaction with Child B who in this instance appears to be more advanced, he attempts to correct and teach Child A the correct way of placing the diaphragm through active learning. Jean Piaget   relates cognitive, moral, and emotional development. In his opinion, cognitive and emotional development show parallel,   courses of development, with cognition providing the structure and emotion the energy of development. Just as children go through stages of cognitive developme nt, they likewise display emotional development and understanding new   emotional expressions and experiences which are characteristics of different levels of development. Although my presence might have caused a bias in the childs natural behaviour I was able to see his response to his reaction as he threw the stethoscope aggressively in frustration and when he notices the presence of an adult he quickly says sorry to the stethoscope and smiled. Vygotsky suggested that social interaction within cognitive development would develop while socialising first. This means that most individuals would look to see how parents behaviour are towards things, watching the way they speak and then they would try to imitate them just as child A imitates conversational skills through discussing the toy cars they are playing with and identify the colours of the car. Play and playfulness is categorized into three key areas, imagination and creativity, playful exploration, problem solving and dizzy play. Dizzy play consists of rough play, tumbling humour and language play such as seen with Child A as he spins around saying woo and announcing wow im dizzy   expressing pure joy and a burst of physical energy release. On the mathematics table Child A is confronted by Child C, in this scenario Child C expresses a negative action by snatching from Child A in an aggressive manner. Child C handles this situation in a very emotionally respectful manner, he quotes sharing is caring which immediately diffuses a potential clash and encourages Child C to return the cubes. This was one of the most interesting parts of child to child interaction within this observation, as this showed an advanced development of empathy within Child A which usually begins to develop as toddlers where the concept of i and me begins. Child A shows the understanding of not only his own but the emotional needs of those around him Theorist such as Glassman, (2000) develops ideas for behaviourism and demonstrates ways of observing to   understand development. He also mentions a focus on learning. He suggests that learning means changes in behaviour which indicates experiences and interactions in an environment. This explains and demonstrates child A focusing on learning when Child B shows him how to use the stethoscope, which allows him to learn how to use it. As child A changes his choice of profession from being a policeman to a doctor, his behaviour also changes. The reason for the change was that he wasnt able to find the hat but found the briefcase without struggling. This is a result of child A experiencing and interacting within the environment. In this observation I mainly focused on what child A was able to do rather than what he couldnt do. Vygotsky includes in his theory about emphasis childrens capability and the partnership between the child and adult as the same between me and child A. Within this observation child A has demonstrated many skills as he becomes active to the use of his body movement whilst playing, he interacts with the environmental materials and people around him. Child A communicates as he shares his thoughts and information through playing with child B and other practitioners. He communicated verbally with some simple sentences. He shows excitement and having fun while playing with the different areas. Child A absorbed himself, concentrated and thought about what activities he involved himself with. Interacting was the main skill developed by child A as he formed this action a couple times during the observation. My observation was thorough and well, and through watching small emotional signs and reactions to different scenarios I was able to understand through a more practical approach about the emotional development of a child at play he interacts with children of different stages of development themselves. Reference list: Fromberg, D.P. (1990). Play issues in early childhood education. In Seedfeldt, C. (Ed.), Continuing issues in early childhood education, (pp. 223-243). Columbus, OH: Merrill. Frost, J.L. (1992). Play and playscapes. Albany, NY: Delmar. G Department for Education, 2012. Statutory Framework for the Early Years Foundation Stage. (EYFS). London: Early Education Palaiologou, I. (2012) Child observation. 2nd ed. London: Sage Publications Ltd.

Analysis Of An American Social Welfare Policy Social Work Essay

Analysis Of An American Social Welfare Policy Social Work Essay Social welfare policies are an integral part of any political system. Many countries across the world have formulated social welfare policies to cope with the numerous social issues affecting society. There are many underprivileged people in society who include the unemployed, poor and disabled, and these require assistance from the state in order to achieve their potential. Social welfare in the US includes healthcare, empowerment, housing and other programs geared towards assisting the poor, unemployed and marginalized in society. Such programs include Medicaid, AFDC (Aid for families with dependent children), WIC (women, infants and children) programs, veteran programs and others. The US social welfare policy has been in existence for over two centuries and it traces its roots to British Poor Laws which were used by British colonies (Brown et. al. 12-17). These laws differentiated between people who were unable to work due to unemployment and those unable to do so due to physical health or age. The previous group was assisted with employment in workhouses while the latter was granted cash or other forms of assistance by the government. It is important to understand the US social welfare system in order to assess whether the objectives it was formed to attain are in fact being accomplished. This will enable us to make recommendations on whether the policy should be improved, remain the same or scrapped altogether. This paper will evaluate the US welfare policy in detail. It will assess its history and reasons why it was developed. The policy description and analysis will assist in evaluating the welfare policy. Afterwards an assessment will be made on whether the policy is effective in meeting the needs of the American society. The discussed issues will be summarized at the end of the paper. Historical background It has been stated that the US social welfare policy has been in existence for over two centuries and it traces its roots to British Poor Laws which were used by British colonies. The government realized that there were the poor and marginalized in society and that some of them were unable to meet their basic needs due to lack of employment. The huge number of unemployed people was a burden to society and contributed highly to acts of deviance which were experienced then. There was also the need to take care of war veterans who had contributed to the stability of the US through sacrificing themselves to defend their country. Congress approved programs aimed at supporting war veterans as early as 1862. Before government intervention, there was also some form of welfare which was practiced by villages. For instance, when families required assistance and friends and neighbors were unable to provide sufficient help, villages provided such help through workhouses or almshouses and poor re lief systems. There was also Mothersà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â€ž ¢ pension law which helped single mothers bring up children comfortably as well as cash allowance for the poor. In some states, aid for the blind was provided as early as the 1920s. However, these were mainly laws formulated to cater for specific objectives and were not necessarily a government policy as is in the modern world. The welfare policy was developed to cater for needs of families which suffered the Great Depression. The Great depression which occurred in 1929 and lasted for almost two decades before global economies recovered. It caused collapse of many economies and stock markets, massive unemployment, deflation of products and a general decrease in disposable incomes of most households. After the Great Depression, the government decided to develop a welfare policy which targeted families and households among other deserving groups. In 1935 the Social Security Act which defined policy programs was passed under President Roosevelt. Various social welfare policy programs including Aid to Dependent Children and unemployment compensation were developed as a result. In addition, government agencies such as Department of Labor, Department of Housing, Depar tment of Education and department of Agriculture were also formed to oversee the implementation of the welfare policy (Taylor 68-73). In subsequent years, various other policy programs were developed to meet modern needs. For instance, the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act passed in 1996 under President Clinton aimed at assisting the poor and empowering them to obtain employment as opposed to dependence on aid. The problems which necessitated development of the welfare policy will be discussed in the following section of the paper. Problem description necessitating policy There were several problems which necessitated the development of the social welfare policy. It is important to understand that different generations faced various problems throughout history although most were similar. This section of the paper will analyze the reasons necessitating development of the social welfare policy at different points in time depending on problems prevailing at the time. Initially, it has been discussed that social welfare was developed due to four major reasons. The first was to address the problem of poverty and unemployment. It was realized that friends and neighbors were sometimes unable to assist the poor in society who were beginning to be a burden to society. Many unemployed people were poor and had begun participating in social vices since they were unable to afford money for basic needs. There were no clear statistics on poverty levels but it was believed that over 10% of the total population lived in poverty. The second reason which necessitated de velopment of the welfare policy was the old and especially the war veterans who had sacrificed themselves for the country. Such categories of people were unable to work effectively due to age or injury and they began receiving support from the state. However, the modern welfare policy system began due to the effects of the Great Depression. It has been discussed that the Great depression which occurred in 1929 and lasted for almost two decades caused collapse of many economies and stock markets, massive unemployment, deflation of products and a general decrease in disposable incomes of most households. The Great depression was a massive problem which caused a fall of crop prices by over 50%, collapse in construction industry, over 50% decline in tax revenues and personal incomes, collapse in logging and mining industries and an over 25% increase in overall US unemployment rate amongst other problems (Modigliani 41-43). These were huge financial problems which threatened the survival of many families and businesses and the government developed the welfare policy aimed at supporting the affected families and households among other deserving groups. This facilitated the 1935 passage of the Social Security Act which defined policy pr ograms under President Roosevelt. Other welfare policies have been passed under President Clinton and these aimed at assisting the poor meet modern challenges and empowering them to obtain employment as opposed to dependence on aid. Policy Description There are two major policies which will be discussed as far as policy description of the US social welfare system is involved. The first is the 1935 the Social Security Act passed to mitigate the effects of the Great Depression and the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act passed to cater for the poor and marginalized in society. The 1935 the Social Security Act This Act was passed under President Roosevelt and it formed the basis of developing the welfare system as is used today. The Act advocated for development of programs which limited the threats to American society including poverty, old age, burdens of widows and orphans as well as unemployment. These problems were made worse by the Great Depression which occurred during this period in history. The Act provided various benefits to unemployed people and retirees, with lump-sum payments being made after their death. The payments which were made to retirees were funded by taxes on the payrolls of current workers, with half the payments being funded by employers. The old, families with depended children and unemployed were financed by funds in various states which were advanced by the central government. Many minorities and women were locked out from these programs. This was due to the fact that the Act did not cover employees in domestic service, agricultural labor, government employees, nurses, teachers and social workers. This locked out minorities and women who dominated these sectors. The Act also discriminated against women who received insurance programs based on children or husbands. Minorities such as blacks received lower funds for assistance in some states due to the perception that blacks needed less money for maintenance. During this period, approximately $35 million was paid out in welfare programs by the central government. It is important to note that these welfare programs were long term in nature and did not have strict time limits where people could rely on welfare. 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act It has been discussed that this Act was passed under President Clinton. It had a significant impact on the goals and methods of assistance on the poor in society. The bill was passed with the belief that welfare programs were encouraging immigrants to relocate to the US where they became social burdens to society (Frum 325-327). It aimed at providing short term assistance to families as opposed to long term assistance as was being previously practiced. It also led to the change of long term welfare programs to short term ones. For instance, the 1935 Aid to Families and Dependent Children program was replaced by Temporary Assistance for Needy Families. In addition to shortening the length of welfare programs, this Act also increased eligibility standards required by those claiming benefits. These included reduction in immigrant welfare assistance, stricter conditions for eligibility for food stamps and recipient work requirements (David 33-37). The objectives of the program were requi ring welfare recipients to obtain employment after 2 years, ending welfare as an entitlement form, encouraging two parent families, limiting welfare support from federal funds to 5 years and enhancing child support enforcement. Welfare support came from both the federal and state government, with $650 billion being payable in welfare programs in 2009. Policy Analysis It is important to analyze the welfare policy which has been discussed in the paper in order to evaluate its legal and ethical implications. The major goals of the modern welfare system are to prevent dependence on welfare while at the same time assisting the old, unemployed, poor and single families amongst other target groups. The aim of the previous welfare system was to assist families, the old and unemployed mitigate the effects of the Great Depression. The intention of the 1935 the Social Security Act was to provide assistance to these marginalized groups. This was a noble intention since the great depression threatened the survival of many families and businesses. However, there were defects in the programs since they discriminated against minority groups and women. They were also long term support programs which indirectly encouraged reliance on aid by the needy. Since the needy were assured of financial support, some became comfortable and did not see the need to look for em ployment since the government was supporting them. However, these weaknesses were later discovered and the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act was passed. This Act corrected the weaknesses in the earlier legislation since it supported the previously discriminated groups including women and minorities. It also limited the timeline for welfare support and made welfare eligibility more difficult to discourage reliance on welfare both immigrants and native US citizens. This is an important step since it encourages people to empower themselves as opposed to relying on government support. The welfare policy enables the unemployed and poor to seek employment. This improves their relations with the rest of society since they are not seen as burdens that rely on support from public taxes as was previously the case. It also enables the recipients to improve the quality of life since it empowers them to seek financial stability and empowerment. Governments across the world should embrace welfare policies which help the needy b ut at the same time discourage them from relying on aid in the long run. Summary and conclusion The US welfare system has been discussed in detail. The system traces its roots to the 18th Century when villages assisted the needy and old in society. However, the modern form of welfare which is practiced today was developed from the 1935 the Social Security Act which was passed to mitigate the effects of the Great Depression. The Great depression caused the collapse of many businesses and loss of jobs by households due to massive unemployment. The Act aimed at providing long term support for the poor, needy, unemployed and the old in society. However, it faced two main weaknesses which were discrimination against minority groups and women, and encouraging reliance eon aid by beneficiaries. In order to solve these weaknesses, the 1996 Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Act was passed. The Act supported the previously discriminated groups including women and minorities and limited the timeline for welfare support and made welfare eligibility more difficult to discourage r eliance on welfare both immigrants and native US citizens. This encouraged recipients of welfare to look for employment opportunities and empowered them in the long run. It also improved their relations with the rest of society since they are not seen as burdens that rely on support from public taxes as was previously the case. It is important for governments to develop social welfare policies which are similar to those applied in the US. These will assist the marginalized and empower them to seek financial empowerment through obtaining meaningful employment. Such programs should not encourage recipients of welfare to depend on it in the long run. They should have feasible timelines when recipients of welfare should cease dependence on such programs. Only recipients who are unable to gain employment due to unique circumstances such as age or disability should receive long term welfare assistance. The programs should also have strict eligibility requirements to prevent abuse by able-bodied people capable of gaining employment. This will improve the social welfare of society in general.

Saturday, July 20, 2019

Merchant of Venice Essay: The Depression of Antonio -- Merchant Venice

The Depression of Antonio in Merchant of Venice    In the Merchant of Venice, we see a truly anti-Semitic play by Shakespeare.   However, we also see a tale of money (greed and generosity), love (heterosexual and homosexual), and emotion (joy and sadness).   The play revolves around Bassanio's love for Portia.   Bassanio needs money to play the suitor to Portia in "style".   His friend who loves him, Antonio, agrees to give him the money, but, because all of his money is invested in his merchant ships he must take a loan from the greedy Jew Shylock.   Shylock loans him the money in exchange for a pound of his flesh if he does not pay the loan back on time.   Bassanio wins Portia's hand, but, before they are joined together, Portia will disguise herself in order to win the freedom of Antonio when his ships meet with ruin and he cannot repay Shylock.   Shylock ends up losing half his wealth and must convert before Portia is through with him.   Antonio is a fascinating character study when it comes to psychology because he is such a sad but noble character.   He is world-weary and life's material things do not bring him joy.   He is also confused about his sadness.   As he says in the opening speech of the play, "In sooth, I know not why I an so sad:/It wearies me; you say it wearies you;/But how I caught it, found it, or came by it,/What stuff 'tis made of, whereof it is born, I am to learn;/And such a want-wit sadness makes of me/That I have much ado to know myself" (Shakespeare   203).   Antonio explains he has scattered his investment risks quite adequately, so it is not his "merchandize" that makes him sad.   Yet, he does admit that he feels it is his nature to be sad, as if he has a chemical imbalance that classifies him as cl... ...nificance with those of the Jewish faith who might befriend him, and it gives him a cynical, negative perspective of the culture around him.   However, at the end of the play Antonio does seem to find some small measure of happiness when he comes to understand how much Portia has done on his behalf.   This shows him that his perceptions of her understanding may have been limited because he more than likely did not expect his strongest ally to be the wife of the man he loves, "Sweet lady, you have given me life and living;/For here I read for certain that my ships/Are safely come to road" (Shakespeare   228).   Thus, Antonio could be recommended for therapy because his depression has the potential to be ameliorated with a deeper understanding and acceptance of his thinking regarding life. Works Cited Shakespeare, W.   The Complete Works.   Random House, NY:   1975.   

Friday, July 19, 2019

where is all of my money going? Essay -- essays research papers

While searching through various newspapers and newspaper web sites online, I realized that the biggest social problem of all is the how misinformed and uneducated the public is. In search of articles on important social problems, the most prominent topics I found were things such as â€Å"Halliburton is awarded $72 Million in Bonuses,† â€Å"Putin blows of steam over baltics at EU Summit,† â€Å"Egypt Presidential Vote may not be very open,† â€Å"China is unwilling to impose sanctions on North Koreans.† Although these are fairly important â€Å"world† issues, they aren’t as important as things such as global structural inequality, racial and ethnic problems, gender inequality and male superiority, over consumption and starvation, and globalization and technology. It seems that people are so caught up in the smaller issues that we forget that some countries are wasting too much of the world’s resources, while other countries are starv ing to death, and ultimately we’re destroying the Earth at a rate faster than even imaginable. But that’s not what we hear on the news because we’re so caught up with the â€Å"runaway bride,† and the naughty priests.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  I did, however, find an article that somewhat relates to the issue of overspending and misplacing our funds while we’re at it. The article is from the Los Angeles Times and is entitled â€Å"$82 Billion Okd in Emergency Spending.† I’ve never managed national budgets, but with that kind of money we could build countries and feed billion...

HENRY FORD :: essays research papers

hENRY FORD ---------- He produced an affordable car, paid high wages and helped create a middle class. Not bad for an autocrat.   Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Ã‚  Henry Ford1863-1947Henry Ford's parents left Ireland during the potato famine and settled in the Detroit area in the 1840s. Ford was born in what is now Dearborn, Michigan. His formal education was limited, but even as a youngster, he was handy with machinery. He worked for the Detroit Edison company, advancing from machine-shop apprentice to chief engineer. In 1893, Ford built a gasoline engine, and within a few years, an automobile, still a novelty item of the rich or do-it-yourself engineers. In 1899 Ford left Edison to help run the Detroit Automobile Company. Cars were still built essentially one at a time. Ford hoped to incorporate ideas from other industries -- standardized parts as Eli Whitney had used with gun manufacturing, or assembly line methods George Eastman tried in photo processing -- to make the process more efficient. This idea struck others in his field as nutty, so before long, Ford quite Detroit Automobile Company and began to build his own ra cing cars. They were good enough to attract backers and even partners, and in 1903, he set up the Ford Motor Company.He still met resistance to his ideas for mass production of a car the average worker could afford. But he stuck to his goal and finally in 1908, began production of the Model T. Ford gradually adapted the production line until in 1913, his plant incorporated the first moving assembly line. Demand for the affordable car soared even as production went up: before Ford stopped making the model T in 1927, 15 million had been sold, and Ford had become the leading auto manufacturer in the country. In addition to the moving assembly line, Ford revolutionized the auto industry by increasing the pay and decreasing the hours of his employees, ensuring he could get enough and the best workers. During the Model T era, Ford bought out his shareholders so he had complete financial control of the now vast corporation. He continued to innovate, but competitors (growing more powerful t hough fewer in number) began to cut into Ford's market share.Ford became interested in politics and as a successful and powerful business leader, was sometimes a participant in political affairs. In 1915, he funded a trip to Europe, where World War I was raging. He and about 170 others went -- without government support or approval -- to seek peace.

Thursday, July 18, 2019

The 20th Century State of the American Dream

The American dream has always been a popular and typical subject matter in literature and arts in the United States. Though not a lot of people may be able to define the term in technical detail, Americans certainly know it by heart. The American dream has grown to a multitude of meanings over the years. A 15-year old girl may see the American dream as winning Ms. USA and being able to represent her country in front of the whole world. A young college student on the hand may see it as finding the most promising job and succeeding in his dream profession someday.While a newly wed man may see the American dream as acquiring his own house and property in a typical sub-urban area where he can start his life with his family calmly and peacefully. These are just some possible faces of American dream based on the perspectives of Americans from different walks of life. However, the real and concrete definition of ideal may not be that certain. The American dream have also been observed to ev olve through the years since it has to base itself on the necessity of the American society.And considering the current state of the American society in this modern age of the 20th century, the American dream can be easily seen as the vision of America as an economically stable, politically peaceful and societally harmonious nation. In this light, one may easily see how the different sectors of the country contributes to the achievement of this dream. However, although it can be observed that all of the American's visions are directed to this goal, there may still be things that hinder the achievement of this ultimate dream.In Loren Hickock's letter to Harry Hopkins in 1934 reveals the state of America, and this was reflected in this statement: â€Å"A Promised Land, bathed in golden sunlight, is rising out of the grey shadows of want and squalor and wrethchedness down here in the Tennessee Valley these days† (Hichock, 1934). The United States of America as the nation on whic h the roots of the state if Tennessee stands was evidently described as a gifted nation showered with golden sunlight. This entails a lot of positive things. This can entail how rich the soil of America is, and this can entail how great it natural resources are.This could have made the American Dream reachable if only the showers of the golden sun was put to good use. In the same letter by Hickock, she describes the state of American farm lands in Tennessee and how these lands, despite their arability and richness do not even grow sufficient crops for people to consume. Hickock writes, â€Å"Crops grown on it are stunted. Corn, for instance, grows only about a third as tall there as it does in Iowa. They tell me it isn't even good timber land. Just a thin coating of soil over rock. † (Hickock, 1934). This was during the 1930s.The situations at present may already be the same, but these confessions may reveal a pre-existing predicament which may have found its way to the roots of all Americans. A similar situation to this which can be seen to hinder America in achieving its ultimate dream is people's waste of resources. Just like the failure of earlier Americans to maximize the capacity or arable lands in Tennessee, American nowadays are suffered with debts and unnecessary financial debts that eventually make them fail in balancing and maximizing their prime resource which is money.Aside from the dilemma on resources, one of the most significant dilemmas of Americans that may have hindered them for so long in achieving the American dream is racism and discrimination on religion. The popular men's magazine in the US, Playboy conducted an interview with Malcolm X regarding the state of racism in America. During the 1960s. In Malcom X's answers, his view of the American dream was clear; however, the destruction of this dream was depicted even clearer. Malcom X says: â€Å"Freedom, justice and equality are our principal ambitions[†¦ The white man has t aught the black people in this country to hate themselves as inferior, to hate each other, to be divided against each other[†¦ ] the brainwashed black man can never learn to stand on his own two feet until he is on his own. We must learn to become our own producers, manufacturers and traders; we must have industry of our own,to employ our own† (â€Å"Playboy Interview Malcolm X, Alex Haley†, 1963). In these lines, the division between black and whites Americans was very apparent.It seemed like these people were living in two separate nations, when in fact, there were sharing one ground. Hence, there was practically no concrete sense of unity during that time. And although most Americans would claim that racism has finally found its end in the country, it can never be denied that it has created a serious scar in America's history. That although the current American society may be doing everything to heal the issue, the scar will always be there and it will never be erased in America's face.This can also be one of the most significant and considerable hindrances of achieving the American dream. Today, almost everything is being commercialized already. Everything seems to have a price tag. Because of this, people are becoming more and more competitive against each other to the extent that human rights violations are committed against their own countrymen. Evidently, in this kind of situation, achieving the ultimate American dream would be impossible. America has always been deemed as the land of the free.But considering how pressured, restrained and oppressed people are now due to financial debts, poltical predicaments and economic instability, America may not be totally free after all. At least not yet. This picture can be easily seen in this statement of Hickock in the same letter she sent to Hopkins: â€Å"And all over the state, in rural areas, the story is the same– an illiterate, wretched people, undernourished, with standards of l iving so low that, once on relief, they are quite willing to stay living so low that, once on relief, they are quite willing to stay there for the rest of their lives. It's a mess† (Hickock, 1934)

Wednesday, July 17, 2019

Stefan’s Diaries: The Craving Chapter 13

That night I lay in bed, gazing up at the ceiling. The moon sh 1 finished the gauzy uninfected curtains, and the house hummed with activity, a melee of footsteps, heartbeats, and mice skittering within the walls. It felt as though the consummate house were alive, with the exception, of course, of myself and Damon. The Sutherlands had no idea, merely when theyd clear their foundation to me, they had invited Death in. I was a cancer on their happy existence, and soon the darkness would spread, eating through their va allow de chambre until there was nonhing left.Though I was no willing bring outicipant in Damons worm plan, it would be no antithetic from how Katherine insinuated herself into my life and decimated the entire Salvatore family. Like it or non, this familys well-being rested squ arely on my shoulders. If Damon killed them, their blood would be on my hands, too. plainly how could I live him? I was so much weaker than my brother, and I had no plans to put dow n nourishment on hu manhoods once again for fear that Id be unable to stop.I rose from bed and pushed the curtains aside with a violent flick. As I sta reddened at the moon, that orb that had witnessed so much of my ill-doing, I replayed the conversation wed had with Margaret everywhere and all over in my head. The firm set of her jaw. The clear tone of her look. The way her lucid blue eyes had sized up me and Damon, as though she could keep in line straight through our come up to our unbeating hearts. Winfield was ready to sign his fortune over to Damon, yet his daughter remained immune to my brothers Power. merely how?The just protection I knew against vampires was vervain, but Id not inhaled its cloying scent since arriving in New York. When trying to draw expose Katherine, my father had spiked my whiskey with vervain, send Katherine into a miasmic fit when she drank my blood. If only my father had thought to protect me sooner, he and I might still be in Mystic Falls, p oring over write up books as I studied to add over Veritas.Sliding the window open, I stepped out onto the narrow balcony. The night was spookily still. No wind rustled the trees, and even the pigeons that roosted on the neighbors roof were quiet. My balcony faced east, toward the muddy eastbound River and the narrow spit of land they called Blackwells Island, where the city had recently rebuilt the lunatic asylum. A juiceless smile twisted my lips. If only I could check Damon in there. exactly wherefore I let out a groan and clutched the wrought-iron rail with my hands. I had to stop wishing and hoping and thinking of millions of if onlys. I could not wish Damon into oblivion and I could not rewrite the past. What was done was done. Even at my peak Power, I could not exertion the world to spin backward, could not arise back time and undo what Katherine did to me and my family. still I was not powerless over the future. I had free will, I had experience, and I had the choic e to fight.Hoisting myself up on the rail, I leaped to the roof, landing on the tar with a soft thud. New York was a bigger city, and someone, somewhere, had to grow vervain or at least pretend dried sprigs. Id chip kill up and down the routes until I caught the revealing scent of the herb. Spiking Lydias drinks would be impossible Damon was feeding from her but if I could just strewing some in Winfields whiskeyI ran across the roof, preparing to jump to that of the neighbor, before grading down their fire escape to the street below.Where are you going, brother? The cheery spoken language sliced through the night the same gunshot, and I froze on the ledge.Slowly, I move somewhat to face a bright Damon. He looked ready for the second part of his evening jaunt, wearing a triad-piece suit and twirling a gold slash in his hand. I recognized it instanter it had belonged to Callies father, the man who had imprisoned Damon, torturing him and ravenous him before forcing him to do battle with a mountain lion. Damon must have stolen it afterwards he killed Callie. Unbidden, an image of Callie bloomed in my mind. Her pleasing green eyes smiling at me, the freckles that dusted every inch of her bole, the way she had so bravely given herself to me on the set ashore of the lake, offering her blood even though she knew what I was and what I could do to her.Her dead, twisted body lying in the puke behind Lexis house.You bastard, I said in a low, fury-filled voice that I scarcely recognized as my own. Rage that had been grammatical construction for weeks with no outlet tore through my veins, and I felt as though my muscles were on fire. With a growl, I threw myself at him. Why wont you just let me be?Our bodies collided, like stone on stone. Startled, Damon trim down backward, but instantly he pushed me off and flipped to his feet. He wrapped his arms around my neck with a vise-like grip. If you were so do-or-die(a) to be free of me, you shouldnt have strained me to become a vampire with you, he hissed, all traces of joviality gone from his demeanor. I struggled to free myself, but his knee press more forcefully into my spine, pinning me to the roof. You were the one who urged me to become what I am to see what Katherine gave us as a bounty rather than a curse.Trust me, I gasped, trying to twist from his grip. I would evolve it back if I could.Tsk-tsk, Damon chided. Didnt Father watch you that part of being a man is living with your choices? He pressed my buttock into the tar roof, scraping open the genuflect there. Then again, you were such a chagrin to him at the end not wanting to marry Rosalyn, taking up with a vampire, killing himYou were always a disappointment, I spat. I should have killed you when I had the chance.Damon let out a dry laugh. Well, that would have been a shame, because then I couldnt do this.The pressure on my spine abated as Damon hoisted me up by the back of the shirt.What are you I start ed.Before I could finish, Damon launched me previous with the force of a lit cannon. My body careened through the night air, and for a brief, weightless moment, I wondered if I was flying. Then the sonorous pavement of the alley between the Sutherlands and their neighbors home rushed up to greet me, and my swot up cracked loudly on the impact.I groaned, upset radiating through my limbs as I rolled to my back, blood trickle down my face. I lay like that for hours, staring at the stars until my Power mend me, resetting my bones and stitching up the deletion in my cheek more swiftly than the most skilled medic could.But when I stood, a new pain shot through my chest. Because there on the brick wall of the Sutherlands home, written in red ink that could only be blood, were three terrifying wordsIm always watching.