Friday, May 31, 2019

Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis’ Out of the Silent Planet :: Post Colonialism Out of the Silent Planet Essays

Post-colonialist Perceptions of Lewis Out of the Silent PlanetThe Italian artist Michelangelo Buonarroti viewed the goal of sculpting as the manipulation of a marble block until the figure within is set free. Just as a carving artist seeks to release its piece from rock, a literary artist desires his art form to be carved from an obscure idea into clear apprehension. The most beautiful of these art pieces are placed in a museum of their avouch right, the literary canon. A great part of literatures beauty is the ability of the artist to present his purpose in indivisible ways, in some degree or another, sliding his message in the literatures elements during its construction. In an enjoyable science fiction/fantasy book, C.S. Lewis uses his own techniques to convey his feelings and attitudes as he often had in the departed. With Out of the Silent Planet, Lewis reveals his acquiescence to Post-colonialist thought in a very hidden way. He presents a story on an alien world, navi gating around a readers earthly partialities to open their minds to his beliefs.Post-colonialism is a discourse draped in history. In unity point in time or another, European colonialism dominated most non-European lands since the end of the Renaissance. Naturally, colonialists depicted the cultures of non-Europeans incorrectly and inferior. Traditionally, the canon has misappropriated and misrepresented these cultures, but withal the Western academia has yet to teach us the valuable and basic lessons that allow true representations to develop. Partly in response, Post-colonialism arose. Though this term is a spacious one, Post-colonialists generally agree on certain key principles. They understand that colonialism exploits the dominated people or country in one way or another, evoking inequalities. Examples of past inequalities include genocide, economic exploitation, cultural decimation and political exclusion (Loomba 9-10). They abhor traditional colonialism but also b elieve that every people, through the context of their own cultures, fool something to contribute to our understanding of human nature (Loomba 1-20). This is the theme that Lewis prescribes in his, self described, satirical fantasy, Out of the Silent Planet (Of Other 77).Sold in bookstores throughout the world and mostly on the religious shelves, C.S. Lewis is hardly recognized in the post-colonial field. But of dozens of authors that could express this discourse, there is no better meet than the British professor.

Thursday, May 30, 2019

The Fire :: Personal Narrative Writing

The FireCmon, itll only take you a second, he said. I can still remember the look on his present he looked like a puppy begging for a treat. My red-haired neighbor was three years older than me he had a sprinkle of freckles across his cheeks and a certain charm in his voice.Ben, I dont know about this. I dont want to sterilise into trouble, I, being constantly cautious, was always reluctant to participate in Bens adventures. No one is going to find out. Stop being such a baby, and go get them he said, growing impatient. I was put in a difficult position. I had Smokey the Bear telling me it was wrong, and my best friend accusing me of being a coward.All right, fine, I said grudgingly, Ill get the matches, but you better come with me. My heart was already racing, and I could feel my palms moisten. My father was the manager at the local bowling alley. This arrangement suited us well, as we would often spend our afternoons lounging around the bowling alley. For this particular act of mischief, the Superbowl was the perfect place to bind our sought after matches. Much to our joy, the Superbowl was a mere mile away from our houses, just the right distance for twelve-year olds. It was far enough to seem like another(prenominal) world, yet close enough for us to venture to alone. We made our way through the dense foliage and towards the bowling alley. We had cleverly named our backyards as The Woods. For a child, even a dozen trees make a thick jungle. We soon came upon the large single-storied building the prized matches were within.I saw the bowl full of matches on the bite bar counter. My heart was racing and my head was pounding I might as well have been stealing the crown jewels. Much to my surprise, getting the diabolic packet of matches was easy. We soon had what we yearned for. We now headed for our Cabin. The Cabin was a small clearing in a patch of trees. This provided us with ample space to play, and gave us the seclusion and privacy which acts of misc hief required. We gathered the necessary materials and headed for Bens house. What possessed us to play with fire in the basement of his house, I cannot fathom.Ben and spoke miniature during this period.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Essay --

Although the European Union consists of a large variety of institutions, the closely important institution is the European Commission. Established in 1958 and based in Luxemburg and Brussels, this hybrid institution (executive and bureaucratic) epitomizes supranationalism and lies at the center of the EU political system (Dinan, 2010, p. 171). It has a substantial bulk of responsibilities and carries out these responsibilities with a vast name of constituents, acting as the executive for the EU. These responsibilities include anything from drafting and initiating policy to managing the financial framework of the EU, and can have a large impact on the otherwise institutions of the EU. In order to promote the general interests of the Union, the Commission strives to unify the interests of the member states and is continually working for implementation and harmonization of EU law (Dinan, 2010, p. 191). Although not the most popular, in the sense that Europeans generally view the Comm ission as power-hungry, insensitive to their concerns, and subversive of national political systems, the Commission carries out responsibilities that play a tonality role in EU policy on a daily basis (Dinan, 2010, p. 171-172). These responsibilities include drafting and initiating policy, supervising the enforcement of the acquis communautaire and other legislation, managing the budget, and representing the interests of the EU internationally. Given its centre of attention position within the structure of the EU (kind of as an overseer of the EU as a whole), the Commission has developed active relations with the other institutions in order to carry out these responsibilities. Although other institutions also play an active role in the implementation of EU policy, no othe... ...itiate policy, supervise the enforcement of the acquis communautaire and other legislation, plow the budget, and represent the interests of the EU internationally. Although it may not have the final say in arbiting law, it has quite a lot of influence on the Council and ECJ due to its acquaintance on the acquis communautaire and EU law. Due to its high volume of responsibilities, the Commission must have a large number of experts in order to fulfill them. If anything roughly drafting or initiating law is in question, there will always be an expert that can answer it, whether it is a DG or consultive committee. Through this network of responsibilities and experts, the Commission has become the most important institution by being able to effectively implement a range of EU policies and programs one of the most prominent goals of the European Union (Dinan, 2010, p. 202).

Rural-Urban Inequality in Contemporary China Essay -- impact of PRC Hok

Introduction -- The Summary of the Reading MaterialsThe chinaware hukou dodge, whose formal name is huji system, institutionally divides and organizes the Chinese people. To fully appreciate the significance of the hukou system, however, is non easy, even though many, especially those who have lived under the system, can vividly and endlessly attest its mighty presence. For it extensively and powerfully affects almost every construction of the Chinese society and way of life. In this process, the hukou system tends to generate multifaceted, sometimes even contradictory and conflicting effects on Chinas politics, sparing, and loving life.In politics,the PRC hukou system established stability, authoritarianism, and Elite Class. In economics, the hukou system has allowed the PRC to circumvent the Lewis Transition (also known as Lewis turning point, do in 1968 by Lewis, describes with the growth of rural economic , cheap labor after being fully absorbed, their wages will rise sign ificantly. Lewis displayed with this theory of industrialization and urbanization be the best means to combat rural poverty) and hence to enjoy rapid economic growth and technological sophistication in a dual economy with the existence of massive surplus labor, however, the hukou system has created tremendous irrationalities, imbalances, and waste in the Chinese economy and barriers to further development of the Chinese market. At the same time, the PRC hukou system has generated a regionally uneven development and spatial inequality, such as the capita income gap, legal minimum wages, the amount of Welfare Pay. The PRC hukou system made a horizontal stratification in social life Chinese culture, social stratification, and social norms and values have all d... ... new resources to finally overpower the wide cleavage between rural and urban that has characterized Chinese society since the 1950s, only a sketchy overview pf some the initiatives will be presented.Conclusion contradi ctory population registration systems in many other countries, the PRC hukou system was designed not merely to provide population statistics and identify personal status, precisely also directly to regulate population distribution and serve many other important objectives desired by the state. In fact, the hukou system is one of the major(ip) tools of social control employed by the state. Its functions go far beyond simply controlling population mobility. Through nearly fifty-years development, the PRC hukou system constituted rural-urban inequality in contemporary China, which has been bringing profound influences on Chinese politics, economics, and social life.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Culture and Psychopathology : A relationship Essay -- Psychology

Culture is defined as the group of similar values, goals, outlooks, ideas and traditions that a shared by a certain group of people. The human race is diverse and varied, filled with many cultures. There are many differences in these cultures and because of these differences the commentary of normal differs from culture to culture. It only makes sense that diagnoses of psychopathologic disorders vary from culture to culture. However certain things will not change because fundamentally, we all still choke to the same species.Take the typical division of the east and the west. Research has shown that people from western cultures think differently from people in the eastern cultures. Westerners tend to verify themselves as individuals. In comparison, people from East Asian cultures tend to see themselves as part of a whole and as interdependent person in the community. This translates itself into their world view, while the westerner tends to see the main point in great detail the e asterner is more likely to see the full dynamics of the full picture (Goldberg, 2008). It can be said that they think differently because of the culture in which they are immersed in. An experiment was carried out to determine how were 8-year-olds were at gravel solving. This experiment was carried out with American and Asian children. The Americans did better at puzzles they had chosen while the Asians did better at puzzles their mothers had chosen. This reflects on the varying though processes between the 2 cultures. The Americans were more independent and comfortable to choose their own puzzles while the Asians were comfortable in the belief that their mothers knew what the best was for them (Goldberg, 2008).The point of the experiment was to... ...izations in the many cultures in the world.ReferencesPsychological Medicine. (n.d.). Changi General Hospital. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from www.cgh.com.sg/Medical_Specialities/Medical_Services/Pages/psychological.aspxhttp//Goldberg, C. (n.d.). Differences Between East and West Discovered in Peoples Brain Activity - The Tech. The Tech - MITs Oldest and Largest Newspaper. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http//tech.mit.edu/V128/N9/culture.html Juris G. Draguns (1986) Culture and psychopathology What is cognize about their relationship?, Australian Journal of Psychology, 383, 329-338Braun, F. K., Fine, E. S., Greif, D. C., & Devenny, J. M. (2010). Guidelines for multicultural assessment An asian indian american case study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(3), 130-141. http//search.proquest.com/docview/610013358?accountid=16285

Culture and Psychopathology : A relationship Essay -- Psychology

Culture is defined as the group of similar values, goals, outlooks, ideas and traditions that a shared by a certain group of people. The clement race is diverse and varied, filled with many cultures. There are many differences in these cultures and because of these differences the definition of normal differs from culture to culture. It only makes sense that diagnoses of psychopathologic disorders divert from culture to culture. However certain things will not change because fundamentally, we all still belong to the same species.Take the typical division of the east and the west. look for has shown that people from western cultures suppose differently from people in the eastern cultures. Westerners guide to see themselves as individuals. In comparison, people from East Asian cultures tend to see themselves as part of a whole and as interdependent person in the community. This translates itself into their world view, turn the westerner tends to see the main smirch in great det ail the easterner is more likely to see the full dynamics of the full picture (Goldberg, 2008). It can be said that they think differently because of the culture in which they are immersed in. An experiment was carried out to determine how were 8-year-olds were at puzzle solving. This experiment was carried out with American and Asian children. The Americans did better at puzzles they had chosen while the Asians did better at puzzles their mothers had chosen. This reflects on the varying though processes between the two cultures. The Americans were more independent and comfortable to choose their own puzzles while the Asians were comfortable in the belief that their mothers knew what the best was for them (Goldberg, 2008).The point of the experiment was to... ...izations in the many cultures in the world.ReferencesPsychological Medicine. (n.d.). Changi General Hospital. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from www.cgh.com.sg/Medical_Specialities/Medical_Services/Pages/psychological.aspxhttp// Goldberg, C. (n.d.). Differences Between East and West notice in Peoples Brain Activity - The Tech. The Tech - MITs Oldest and Largest Newspaper. Retrieved April 1, 2012, from http//tech.mit.edu/V128/N9/culture.html Juris G. Draguns (1986) Culture and psychopathology What is known about their relationship?, Australian Journal of Psychology, 383, 329-338Braun, F. K., Fine, E. S., Greif, D. C., & Devenny, J. M. (2010). Guidelines for multicultural assessment An asian indian american case study. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 38(3), 130-141. http//search.proquest.com/docview/610013358?accountid=16285

Monday, May 27, 2019

Causes and Effects of Child Labor Essay

Child labor is the shapeuate of the employment of churlren that harms them or prevents them from attention school. An innumerable amount of children from all around the world lose their innocence to macrocosm employed in dreadful occupations. Have you ever wondered when did this inhumane act start? The history of child labor jackpot be dated back to the Industrial Revolution. During that era, children were forced to work in hazardous conditions with insufficient pay. They would stand out for countless hours in dangerous environments for the sake of overcoming financial difficulties. This essay will discuss the causes and effects of child labor during and after the Industrial Revolution. There be many causes of child labor. To begin with, the main reason why children were employed is because of the extreme poverty and overpopulation.Poverty-stricken families t intercept to have a lot of children, gum olibanum their progeny become a burden. The children cause more financial di stress to their parents so having them work would alleviate the troubles they are going through even though it might still be inadequate to support the indigent family. Moreover, another cause is migration of families from the rural areas to the urban areas with the optimism of having a better life. Sadly, their expectations of having good jobs were not met, unless a more exasperating life struck them in their new area. In most cases, all of the family members ended up work to avoid being impoverished. Furthermore, another cause is the lack of education. The ignorance of the parents prevents the children from having a normal childhood, they make them sweep chimneys and work in factories that have toxic materials and dangerous machinery.The children go through these obstacles season their parents stay at home, unemployed. Also, those uneducated parents do not understand the significance of learning is in the childrens life, and working prevents them from getting the essential educ ation they need. Since working at a very young age has many causes, it must also have many severe consequences that affect both the children and their society. The effects of child labor are countless. First of all, the children who find difficulties in working or make a very small amount of money usually end up begging on the streets. They would give up their dignity just to earn a little amount of money. Also, in many situations, they fall into the pitch-dark side of life and become thieves just to earn cashthe rapid way. Additionally, many children face many health problems, both physical and mental, as a core of being exposed to hazardous materials and working for countless hours in a harsh workplace.Their physical health will be damaged overdue to being surrounded by harmful materials in their workplace, for the child might accidentally inhale or ingest the chemicals. The childrens mental health can also be damaged by the employers who do not care about them. The employer th inks that he/she can get away with mistreating the children because they are young and asleep of their rights by constantly threatening and verbally abusing them. However, this will severely affect the child as they approach adulthood. In conclusion, child labor is an inhumane act that makes children, no matter how old, work in the toughest situations, which started in the Industrial Revolution. The causes of child labor contain being poor, moving from one area to another, and their parents being unschooled. The result of child labor includes turning children into beggars and thieves, and causing severe health problems.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Meaning of life essay Essay

?You lead never be happy if you continue to seek for what happiness consists of. You will never live if you are looking for the meaning of demeanor (Camus). If you spend your whole liveliness searching for one thing you will waste your emotional state and it will only take a few moments for time to pass you by. The meaning of feel is nonexistent and imponderable. ?The meaning of life is contained in every single expression of life. It is present in the infinity of forms and phenomena that exist in on the whole of creation (Jackson). The meaning of life is simply the way you trance it. Like religion everyone has differentphilosophies and opinions and only those who give life a meaning have the true understanding of the meaning of life. My Opinion on the importee of Life I believe the meaning of life is to give life a meaning, because there truly is no meaning otherwise. I believe everyone adds their testify meaning to life. The meaning of life is never universal, never comple x. I believe the meaning of life should be simple and potentially whatever we want it to be. I do what I do because I want to. Its that simple for me I do it because it means something to me. Life is a great big canvas, and you should shed all the paint on it you can (Kaye).I believe this quote is saying that you should give life your all and do whatever it takes to make your life the way you want it. This is saying someone should do what you believe the philosophy of your life is. Many people go about their lives searching for the meaning of life and how it applies to them only in reality they will waste their lives away looking for something that does not exist. There is not one big cosmic meaning for all there is only the meaning we each give to our life, an individual meaning, an individual plot, like an individual novel, a book for each person (Nin). Life has no meaning. Each of us has meaning and webring it to life. It is a waste to be asking the question when you are the an swer (Campbell). This is saying how we bring the meaning to life and our thoughts and ideas on what we believe life is and should be. I do not believe in the idea of there being one specific meaning but millions for each and every soul around the earth. Various populations will all agree to disagree about their views but in retrospect you realize that everyone is right. Everyone gives their feature meaning to the idea. Purposes and meanings will change, but the overall meaning to life, that there is no true meaning, will always stay the same.I believe the meaning of life is to give life a meaning. Works Cited ?Albert Camus Quote. BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. . ?Anais Nin Quote. BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. ?Danny Kaye Quote. BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. . ?Michael Jackson Quote. BrainyQuote. Xplore. Web. 23 Mar. 2015. .

Saturday, May 25, 2019

Explaining the role of ‘suppliers’ Essay

Question Explaining the type of suppliers in an organizations microenvironment. Discuss the impact the supplier environment might have on the marketing of meek drinks. Definition of suppliers Firms and individuals that provide the resources needed by the union to produce its goods and benefits (lecture 3, p10). This includes materials and parts, capital items, supplies and service. (Diagram 1. 4) The Role of suppliers Suppliers play a vital fictional character in an organizations microenvironment. The relationship between suppliers and organizations ar built on a solid foundation of value.(Diagram 1. 3) The growth and the vision of the organization enumerate heavily on the values that the suppliers provide advise. The extent to which organizations and suppliers work together toward their respective or common goals is defined as Joint action. In this Joint, the supplier contribute signifi orduretly in provides sources of competitive advantages towards the organizations again st other competitors as well as save cost and achieve efficiency for the organization. (Diagram 1. 1) Supplier and organization are interdependent on each other.This relationship develops and nurture strong traffic ties and make both needed each other to achieve desired goals. The ties can become stronger when both an organization and a supplier are highly dependent on each other. The most important thing is that an organization cannot offer customers superior service if the suppliers are not giving the organization the same. It is important that the organization has a high communication frequency and information sharing with its suppliers. A good keep going contact and information sharing helps routine issues such as point of intersection availability, order handling and delivery issues and reduce doubtfulness.When the organization has frequent communication with its suppliers, it can give the supplier the chance for operational improvements and product development. This can in directly help the organization because when the advice is accepted, the efficiency and effectiveness of the supplies can be improved. If the role of the supplier is underestimated by the organization, the organization could prevent itself from improving and developing. Customer accommodation(Diagram 1. 2) This reflects to what extent the suppliers are prepared to accommodate customers changing needs and want, which is always changing rapidly and blusteringly.Can suppliers be flexible? Are they prepared to relax rules for customers? Can they respond to the unexpected? And so on. Here, the role of supplier is vital. If the organization cannot accommodate what customer need and want because of the supplier, the organization could incur a decrease in sale in short marge and damage customer satisfaction in the long term. The offering A high level of product quality usually leads to customer confidence. An organization cannot name that confidence if their supplier cannot produce a hig h quality supplies.The role of supplier here is to make sure they can produce quality product that an organization is expected as well as its costumers. Transaction cost is similarly another important element in suppliers offering. Transaction cost emphasizes the efficiency of inter-firm ex-change and the magnitude of transaction cost is what determines the degree of relational behavior between firms (K. Kim, 1999, p 218). Transaction cost includes frequency of transaction, uncertainty and asset specificity, such as location of firms and the delivery. Cost.Organization seeks suppliers that give the best price, such as cost of the products, materials of components purchased and other costs involved process. The supplier also needs to position their price that will bring cost benefits to the company so that their relationship is maintained steadily. Brand and landed estate of production Brand and country of production provides value both to the Customer and organization. The quality of the product is always associated with the brand and Country of production when costumers are making quality judgment.The supplier thus has an important role when the organization is setting out its marketing strategies. Impact of supplier environment on the marketing of soft drinks Soft drink company researched- coca-cola, PepsiCo, Quakers, Frito-Lay and Tropicana. The use of societal marketing philosophy In the five soft drinks company researched, all of them were involved in helping Minority owned business and Woman/Women Owned Business by making them their secondary suppliers to show that they are concerned closely the need and the want of the society as a whole.Their diversity of suppliers made them welcomed in all cultures and different country as well as creates an environment for the organization that attracts better public reputation and loving publicity. Impact of supplier environment on the marketing of soft drinks According to the marketing philosophy, the organizat ion always has to try to satisfy the needs and the wants of its customer. But without the contribution of suppliers to improve and supply whats required by the organization to provide its good and services, it would be certain that the organization will not be capable to satisfy the needs and wants of costumers.A good supplier environment can help the business to perform better and achieve more. There are hardly a(prenominal) factors that need to be considered for a good supplier environment. In a soft drinks company, the company need to make sure that product, pricing and costumer service of supplier are high in standard. These factors are very important for a soft drink company as that their costumers have rapid and abrupt changes in preferences as well as their dissimilar needs. For example, if a company identifies that a spick-and-span soft drink needs to be introduced into the market.They must premier make sure that there supplier is able to make a new commitment and flexib ility towards the new product. telephoner need to know that if the new soft drink is high in demand the supplier is able to meet that demand and still maintain the same quality of that particular soft drink.References List International journal of research in Marketing, Joint Action (1999) Principles of marketing (2001). Kotler, Adam, Brown and Armstrong Inside Business Success, May 1998. Manager Update al-Quran 13 number 1 Autumn 2001.Coca-Cola Soft Drink Company official website, www. coca-cola. com PepsiCo Soft Drink Company official website, www. pepsico. com Fritolay Soft Drink Company official website, http//www. fritolay. com/biz/minority/index. html Quaker Soft Drink Company official website, http//www. quakeroats. com/qfb_BusinessPartners/diversity. cfm Tropicana Soft Drink Company official website, http//www. tropicana. com/biz/about/supplier. htm Queensland Government, Department of public works, Managing and monitoring supplier performance. Web site unknown.

Friday, May 24, 2019

History and counseling psychology Essay

When we study human behavior, specifically focusing on the exploitation of personality and crucial to how a person or individual conducts him/herself, psychology offers a variety of dimensions. The concept of personality is central to our attempt to understand ourselves and others and is jump of the way in which we account for the differences that contribute to our individuality. Psychologists have been particularly concerned with shaping of the personality in relation to genetic and environmental influences.We have been aureate that the study of human personality has been thriving and fruitful. We can choose from as many models we can to help us see ourselves better and maintain effectual relationships (Fall et al. , 2003). Behavior is described and analyzed. On this basis, an attempt to predict behavior is possible, and although this may not thoroughly and completely be accomplished in some endeavors, the raw material understanding then is that there are certain expectations c oncerning how any person would act or decide upon things that are within his conscious awareness.Psychology is of massive importance to man since psychological problems are common to group relations, in whatever framework a person or group of individuals come from (Fall et al. , 2003). Black, feminist, and cross-cultural psychologies depart from traditional psychology as these are expansions of the classic approaches but are reflective of more distinct and culturally sensitive perspectives that need to be incorporated.The relevance of integrating such approaches is timely since these have never been thought of before as pertinent hence, timely implementation of these theoretical perspectives is then appreciated (Fall et al. , 2003 Hamm, 1989). It is by separately labeling and providing a distinct area for each of these approaches much the same as their predecessors, and pointing to their current applications that makes this incorporation in the new course enkindle and exciting.Due to the increasing technological breakthroughs, communication has never before as quick or speedy and as available as it is now, implying the accessibility of the approaches macrocosm introduced as readily as possible. The internet is a visible proof for this fact. At ones fingertips, materials can be had that even very impertinent villages or cities in third world countries may be able to see the relevance of the approaches according to their contexts (Hamm, 1989).With this in mind, the application of these viewpoints in ones role as teacher involves a deeper understanding in those populations that are particularly addressed in the theoretical viewpoints provided (Gloria & Lewis, 1986). As a practitioner on the other hand, the new set of formally accepted perspectives enhances ones profession in a sense that a new way of feeling at individuals and their culture are acceptable already and thus is a welcome addition to the depth of knowledge and insights of human behavior (Aguirre & Turner, 1995 Boisnier, 2003).

Thursday, May 23, 2019

Unusual Festivals

My lecture is about fantastic festivals. Could you give me some examples for unusual festival? -Yes thats true -Dont you have any idea? Im sure you have seen some unusual festivals on TV but now you might forgot them. Forexample you imagin a lot of large number gathering in a city throwing tomatos at each other(a) just for fun. Have you ever participated in an unusual festival? -Yes great this is such(prenominal) an interesting experience Im sure you never fogot that day. -No no problem I will give you a lot of information about it. I hypothecate you might be in charshanbesori.It is held In the last Wednesday of the grade. Just as the rest of the world moves forward into the online digital world, there are still motley classical traditions from past centuries that retains their popularity with the new younger generation of mountain. Even as some of these traditions are strange and unusual, they have been held until now. Another example is Halloween. On October 31, in some(pr enominal) countries children and adults dress up in unusual costumes. Some sprain witches or ghosts others dress up as trees, goats, and in other genuinely unusual costumes.This festival started in Europe and has spread to all parts of the world. However, not all celebrations spread around the world. Every country has its own singular festivals. The set run into example that I prepared is fete of Snakes Many people are afraid of snake.. In some parts of the world, snakes are regarded as evil or, at least, dangerous. But, there is one small village in Italy where the people seem to worship snakes. They show their respect and love for snakes with a festival. This festival is held each year in the tiny village of Cocullo, which is surrounded by some of Italys wildest forests.There is a leg remove in Cocullo that the surrounding mountains and forests were once full of poisonous snakes. Many of the people from Cocullo who went into these areas died after being bitten by the poisonous snakes. In 700 B. C. , the villagers prayed to Apollo, a Greek god, for help. Apollo told them to capture the snakes, put them around his statue in the village, and then put them back in the mountains and forests. This seemed to work, and the ritual has been repeated ever since. Over the years, the villagers have made some changes to this tradition.Now a statue of a Christian saint, Domenica, has replaced the statue of the Greek god Apollo. In addition, the villagers have added fireworks to the festival. Celebrations mother on Saint Josephs Day, March 19, when the first snakes of the season are captured and put in cages. Two months later, on the first Thursday in May, villagers set off fireworks and then go to church. After church, the statue of Saint Domenica is carried through the streets, and villagers put the captured snakes around his statue. Then, more fireworks are set off.At the edge of the village, the snakes are set free in the forest, and the villagers believe that they are immune from snakebites for another year. La Tomatina The festival of La Tomatina in Bufiol, Spain, is very simple. It is a food fight festival. Everyone throws tomatoes at each other on the last Wednesday of August. The towns streets turn bright red as over 20,000 people hit each other with large, red, soft tomatoes. There are many ideas on how the festival started. The most likely explanation is that it started as a fight between poor and easy teenagers.No one knows who threw the first tomato, but in some manner they began throwing tomatoes at each other. Over the years, this local event has become a national event. It is no longer a war between poor and rich and is now an exciting time for young people to have a rock-steady time throwing tomatoes at eitherone. The standard uniform is an old T-shirt, old shorts, and gum elastic glasses. Farmers bring thousands of tomatoes from around the countryside, and the festival begins with the firing of a rocket. An hour later, the e nd of the festival is announced with the firing of another rocket, and everyone begins to clean up the town.Zombie Walk A zombie walk is an organized public gathering of people who dress up in zombie costumes. Usually taking place in an urban center, the participants make their way around the city streets or through shopping malls or a local cemetery or other public spaces. Holi- The fiesta of Colors This popular Hindu spring festival, observed in India, Nepal, Bangladesh and other Hindu countries, is also known as The Festival of Color. Holi is celebrated at the end of the winter season on the last full moon day of the lunar month, usually in the later part of February or March.It is Originally a festival to celebrate good harvests and fertility of the land. Crying Baby Festival overweight men in this shape can be a very scary sight for many of us. So, you can imagine how babies will react when they are held by one of these men. In Konaki Sumo, a Japanese festival, pairs of babies are held by men like this facing each other. The winner is the baby who cries first. The festival is based on the Japanese proverb crying babies grow fast. Fish-Swallowing Festival the festival involves eating fish but the difference is that they are still alive t is happend in The last Sunday of every February in Geraardsbergen in Belgium. The ceremony draws protests from animal rights activists who want to substitute live fish with fish-shaped marzipan. Monkey Buffet Festival There really is a festival just for monkeys every year in Thailand. On the last Sunday in November at the Pra Prang Sam Yot temple in Lopburi province, north of Bagkok,thousands of pounds of fruit is gathered for a huge buffet just for monkeys. The festival over the years has become more lavish and has put this small province on the world tourism map. Wife Carrying World ChampionshipsEach summer, this weird event in Sonkajarvi, Finland, becomes more and more popular. The wife-carrying contest has been at a w orld championship level for over 13 years now. Wife carrying is a sport in which male competitors race while each carrying a young-bearing(prenominal) teammate. The objective is for the male to carry the female through a special obstacle track in the fastest time. Now my lecture is finished. I want to know your opinion. -Do you think it is a good idea to hold these festivals? For example in tomatina thousands tones of tomato are wasted. While it is possible to cook them and to use them instead of throwing them at each ther. However I have to admit tomatina bring happiness to many of people. But some of them like Crying Baby Festival, Fish-Swallowing Festival, Monkey Buffet Festival and Baby-Jumping Festival are really ridiculous and some of them are really dangerous. -Whats your opinion about charsaabesori in Iran? -Do you agree with it or not? Yes I agree with you. Nowadays it become like a urban war. it is such an dangerous night. As all of us know unfortunately many people die a nd injure seriously. Do you have any question? Thanks a lot for your consideration.

Wednesday, May 22, 2019

Oral History Documentaries

Oral History Documentaries are Human Traditions, how man live and what he believes. In essence it transcribes what is in man, his dignity as a human person and his continues search of himself. These human traditions are written in autobiographies or in memories or diaries and journals. Sometimes re-echoed in ideologies (patterns of our beliefs and practices in a human nightspot) by our memories. As Marcovici sited that our remembrance (memory as part of ideology that has a power in relation to what society we reproduce) prevails our deduction of the past over the present.In the acts of meanings it includes all experiences in a cosmos of meanings, images, social bonds, what man would like to become and what he is afraid to become. It is important that we understand the past so we could act on lesson choices about our present. Oral tale is also all our personal histories into a larger collective histories. With the abounding technologies found in the internet, oral history finds in a refreshing form in digital story telling. Facts in which switch been encoded in the most ordinary and common moves. Oral histories express to our sense datum of the present of mans dominion over greed and forces of natureBelow is what oral histories bring to our sense of our present sphere in price of man dominion over greed in the documentaries At the River I Stand. It tells about a dramatic climax of the Civil Rights movement, a local tire out dispute that became a national issue and the reason behind the assassination of Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. at Memphis in 1968. I am a man is much than an ideology it is a fact and a simple but venerable truth. And because I am a man, a rational creature, I cannot be taken as a second class citizen.The 1,300 African American sanitation exploited workers (works to collect garbage) demands for a full exclusion in American life. AFSCME plyership march a 65 day strike. This excellent pip is a 58 minute documentary which go fort h inspire the viewers to free themselves of whatsoever racial and economic injustice. Just by observing the profound determination of this ordinary people as formed by a racist society as the lowest caste of human beings (David Appleby) one would be able to understand the simple basic need of man which is respect despite the world of greed.This oral history also inspired James Cleveland in his unforgettable quotes one more river to cross before I lay my burden hatful. This memory happens in Memphis in the most ordinary beats and days. The commonplace called street but coincided with the action that hoped to rebuke the future of economic injustice because of the greediness of a few(prenominal) due to prejudices and racism. The person who seems to be frivolous and trivial marked their way to civil rights movement, as they raise their placards with these simple words I am a man. A word that is in the past but is sboulder clay as true as the present and contains the hopes for the f uture.As simple as what a discern musician R. Roland Kirk that every time he plays his saxophone in a concert he always began by saying that this is not just a sideshow (it is more than that). His music should penetrate into his white American audience and in his tune deliberately re-echoes the inequality of men due to racial discrimination, an injustice and inequities that still plaques our society. (Basso) History in American Age of Popular Culture makes us understand the past so we could ponder the moral issues about the or earlier our choices in the present.It is one way of collecting our personal histories into a larger collective history. History takes place in a certain location because a place is the first of all existence. One cannot exist without a place. However there are places that stink with stinginess and greed. Wisdom in places is a common place but it is where history takes a place in the realm of this world. According to the autobiography of Delfina Cuero an Indi an who had lived in Mission Viejo since her childhood years that Indians had to move from place to place to hunt or when the white men comes.In her narrative with the places and plants and things that they ate probed the authentimetropolis of her hold that they were the first settlers in San Diego, California. Though the mountains were cut and the old trees where they create their houses with tamu a kind of reed, she could still recall the places and solutions that had taken place. Her vivid memory made it easy for the causation Florence Connoly Shipek to write her life story. In the introduction the author made in known that the work is to research for the Mission Indian Claims. However, none in the reservation villages can be found a ace surviving coastal Indians.The threefold division of the first settlers makes it ticklish to locate search. Upon hearing Delfinas story it was discovered that in 1900 to 1910 Dieggueos (Spanish term for Kumeyay people) Indians (means those wh o are attached to the San Diego Mission) had lived in Mission Valley and in various places around San Diego wherein it is now called 13th and 17th around K Street. The anthropological scan is to find out the authenticity of the life of Delfina of which the later was able to prove without hesitation and malice. As the story goes we learned that they are poor, most of the time athirst(p) but cheerful catholic people.Despite of the lack of written record the study paved its way through the way the Indians lived during those years. The narrative life of Delfina shows the destruction of Indian self sufficiency on the land, the wooly of the Indian society, culture and religion. It also narrates the very slow pace of integration of this people into the modern society (Shipek). Delfinas story will always be looked upon. The success of the work promises a good life for the Digueos children or next the generation of these Indians to come. Oral histories bring to our sense of the present of mans dominion over forces of natureA documentary film by Spike Lee an African American director When the Levees Broke A requiem in Four Acts Is a heart-rending story of those who survived the devastating ordeal of the destruction of New Orleans. The film also looks at a city that has triumphed over its ordeal because of the resilience of its community, surviving death and amidst the ruins they find strength. A sign of the New Orleaneans rich cultural legacy. The spirit of new Orleaneans says Lee is indomitable these people are accustomed to hardships, they are fighting for their lives. Again man was put to test Man as always have dominion over the forces of nature.They will never disappear in this planet. Oral history from different interview cleared out that the reason why the city is 80 percent underwater is not because of the hurricane Katrina but it was the breach on the embankment of the river. Lee also mentioned the U. S. establishment sluggish response to the problem of t he poor African American citizen. His identity again in his sense of place re-echoed inequality among men. His resilience was deeply rooted on earth and in his consciousness that it is his reason to survive no matter what. Man therefore is still the master of the created world.Lee incorporates in his film a musical culture that is only driven by pure passion and honesty. Their identity has persisted. Their voices and songs are strong and firm. The heart of the marvelous film is centered on the president of the most powerful country stolidness and oversight in relation to the destruction of New Orleans compared to catastrophic war in opposite countries. It explored the real attitude of the rich towards the poor of the world and the depth of its neglect. The film shows the damning picture of Bushs America in relation to a state in calamity which is only flake off deep concern.An act which shows indifference not to the race but to the socio economic state of a person. The film also portrays the lost culture of its people. The title of the film connotes the fact that it is not the hurricane that devastated New Orleans a When the Levees Broke documentary re-affirms the cause of the catastrophe that happens to this American Africans, poor of the most powerful country of the world. It is not the hurricane that destroys New Orleans, But, the real cause was the breach of the embankment of the river.The most difficult part of the film making is asking people enquirys about the incidence because these are the akin people who have lost a home or a love one. However, it is Lees job or duty to ask those difficult questions. A question that stirs up feelings and make people break down (Lee). Although the intention is to have people talk about how it can make changes in their own perspective about life. The outrage for the 45 million African-Americans of these Euopean journalists jumps on Lee as if he was the spokesperson of this neglected community which is being toug h by the almighty U.S. A. as a third world country. It was the time that the film director of this story decided to do it. Never did the federal government neglected its own citizen who needed help. Lee even criticized when a horrific earthquake hits Indonesia, and in two days the US government was there. Asking the question did you see the distance between Indonesia and the New Orleans? Only one fourth of the population is there. The New Orleans black citizens were dispersed in other 46 states, they wish to come home and work but there got to be no place for them.These poor Americans loose their home to a on the face of it a natural disaster. It is hoped that the oral history documentary will remind the U. S. that New Orleaneans is not over with the plight. They in fact need help. The film will also determine the pros and cons over what happened to New Orleans as a definitive moment to the history of America. It is hoped that the film will be and elegy for the lost culture of the inhabitants of New Orleans real state in relation to the calamity and may give an impressive importance of our new century (Fraser and ). A life story is an oral unit of social interaction (Linde).These are coming from interviews and can be written as autobiographies. A biography ends till the end of someone else life. A biographer looks for younger self and an ideological conversion after the passage of many years. He accounts for the difference of the subject and the writer and claim he have the whole stories. It also tells the importance of the subject. The 9/11 attacks on the WTO and Pentagon cancelled all major networks to provide continuous coverage of the event (Caughy). However, the news agenda was only on the subject that is asked to be focused.We are today in the digital knowledge, a capability of sending digitally coded information. Intranets were tie in to cheap regulated public telephones that kept labor rates low. Net users acted to break down barriers which made it p ossible for the massive sharing of files like the realness Wide Web. Community based nets provide access to the public to which many international and non-governments institutions links their networks. Digital tarradiddle telling has truly taken its commonwealth in the Internet. Cyberactivism changes the course of history in a way it disseminate knowledge and stories.Conclusion and reflection of consequences of Digital Story Telling to Oral History Documentaries Story telling is a very intimate gesture of intimacy, one listens and the other gives confidence to the recipient. Oral histories based on traditional documentaries are facts based on the actual experiences of man. The consequence of digital story telling to oral history is the easy access and immediate control of the written facts of the documents. If not properly controlled could lead readers and listeners into error. The sense of documentaries in our life is to use this knowledge as a tool in order to know where we lead .Past experiences is needed in order to cave in the gates of tomorrow and make the present a life worth living. Mans constancy to change needs a journal of his life in order not to get lost. Loosing a culture is loosing oneself. The rich experience of human history is the sublime reality of his existence. Though oral history documentary is sown with facts, digital story telling though there is a relative cyber activism may lead truth to some manipulations which may demoralise the truths and could give information which is only beneficial to a few.Mans history always underlines who are the strong and the weak. Though both are man, the least becomes a lesser being in terms of his presence in a civil society. It is the mighty that continuous to flourish. In this world of indifference history reflects the dusk of the greedy as if someone, stronger than nature dictates the course of history for the whole humankind. In some way, our life story though we may have choices is or was prede stined.

Tuesday, May 21, 2019

Linguistic Reading Response Paper on “The Celtic Languages”

It is interesting to note that the term Celt is a linguistic term first mentioned in the writings of Greek and Roman ethnographers and historians (MacAulay, p. 2). My idea of the concept is that of a particular people with a distinct language who once inhabited Great Britain. It turns out that this language, generally known as Continental Gaelic, has a orbital cavity of dialects once spread out across the various peoples of Europe such as in Gaul and northern Italy, yet died out on the European continent a few centuries back.Celtic survived however, in the British Isles and in Ireland, which is quite a feat given the dominance of Latin and later side of meat settlements. In terms of linguistic affinities, Celtic is recognized as an Indo-European language though it is of interest to note that experts regard it as having archaic features (MacAulay, p. 3), i.e. its wish of a fully developed infinitive, differentiation of gender in numerals 3 and 4, among others, sometimes attributed to its being a peripheral language removed from an innovating center. Variations between the Celtic languages, i.e. Continental and Insular, appear to be a convoluted matter best left to linguists.Ultimately the evolved form of the modern Celtic languages has special typological features which are some(prenominal) archaic (conservative) and innovative. Locative structures used to express location and possession are utilized to express aspectual modes, which in turn cover the range of progressive, potential and perfective aspects in Scottish Gaelic, Welsh, and optionally in British (MacAulay, p. 6).On the other hand, Breton and Irish have innovated based on their majority contact languages french and English, to develop new perfective constructions, as contact with these languages is a primary accelerating source of innovation in Celtic tongues. gum olibanum, languages continue to evolve as its speakers, in the course of their interaction with those of other cultures, are expose d to foreign influences in the on-going social interface between peoples and nations in an increasingly globalizing world.Linguistic Response writing on the Creole ContinuumThe so-called Creole continuum evolve in situations in which a Creole coexists with its lexical source language and there is social demand for creole speakers to acquire the standard so that the speech of individuals takes on features of the latter(prenominal) or avoids features of the former to varying degrees (p. 50).Considering that linguists for a long time were unsure on how to classify varieties with both creole and non-creole features, particularly the English-based varieties of the West Indies, it appears significant to consider that among the many Negro slaves in different parts of America, the jargon upon becoming the exclusively language of the subject group, is a creolized language considered inferior to the masters speech yet nonetheless subject to constant leveling-out and improvement in the di rection of the latter (Bloomfield, 1933, p. 474).Linguists such as DeCamp attempted to work out a theoretical model that could deal with variation in a sufficiently sozzled manner, in reaction to the transformational generative grammar coming to dominate American linguistics. The general usefulness of the continuum model gained wide acceptance by the mid-1970s, yet it is true that it fails to formulate why Atlantic creoles in particular share so many structural features not found in their different lexical source languages (p. 58). Thus the shift back into a universalist theory giving primacy to language science.Chomsky (1965) had proposed that children were born with a predisposition to recognize certain universal properties of language that facilitated their acquisition of the language of their particular speech community (p. 58). Yet such an assertion is still open to scholarly debate and argumentation. It would thus appear that the answer to the creole question remains elusiv e, despite advances in linguistic studies and theory.ReferencesMacAulay, Donald. The Celtic languages an overview

Monday, May 20, 2019

Wordsworth “A Night Thought”

Jalissa Oliva Professor Natalie Holter Enlightenment and love story Humanities 14 April 2013 The poet that I chose is William Wordsworth and the poem of his that I chose is A Night Thought. Wordsworth was a poet who thought that imagination was a strong force that, combined with our senses, made for a powerful, active force altogether. Basic wholey he believed that this enhanced the way we interpreted the world around us and the way that we reacted to certain events.A strong imagination is what was essential to pave the path for a good liveliness and ones well macrocosm. That is part of what the Romanticism era was all about, people expressing themselves for their own well being and to adore their lives more. From what I interpreted from A Night Thought it appears to be about Wordsworth himself proclaiming that he enjoys the distant ravisher of the moon, and even when it is hidden behind the clouds beneath it it is still admirable and beautiful.The moon is always bright as a n ew penny(predicate) as if it were smiling constantly, whereas man, who is spoiled by the many pleasures of the terra firma along with his fortune, always seems to have a condemnable look upon his face. Wordsworth enjoys the sight of the moon compared to the chaos and turmoil of the world around him that man has created on earth for themselves due to the continuous fighting from the wars. It appears as if Wordsworth is envious of the peace that the moon has about it. He wants to go against the same rule that his fellow human beings have to follow.Basically, he wants to be as happy and bright as the moon always is. The way that I think that this poem reflects the values of the generation that produced it, the Romanticism era, is by its general message of wanting to be as happy and at peace as nature rather than be tarnished by the turmoil that man has created in the world. The Romanticism era was all about loving and admiring nature for all of its qualities along with expressing one s self in order to live a happier life and enjoy life a little more.In the poem the moon is an aspect of nature that is being admired by Wordsworth for its beauty even though it is far from our reach in the sky, and even though the clouds dim its bright smile from time to time it can still be admired one time the clouds beneath it disappear, revealing the bright smile that was waiting to be shown to the world once again. Rather than sharpen on the chaos of the world around him, Wordsworth would rather admire the moon for all that it is and appears to want to be as happy and bright as the moon.

Sunday, May 19, 2019

Management Assignment: Human Intelligence Essay

Traditionally organisations retain strong upon the countersign of respective(prenominal)s and held the point of view that goodly people in terms of IQ succeeded more. However, these ideas are continually challenged by the idea of unres ariseed acquaintance being key indicators of servement performance (cited in Khosravi, Manafi, Hojabri, Aghapour and Gheshmi, 2011, pg 3). unrestrained intelligence is ones ability to perceive and regulate other peoples emotions (cited in Sadri, 2012, pg 536).In impersonate society, delirious intelligence of management is essential to prescribed communications in projecting ideas, increasing take to be of team ups through and through creating common team look upons and thence increasing the antic satisfactions of individuals in workplaces from corporations to sales. steamy intelligence is consequently directly cogitate to the overall performance of a company and also the efficiency of individual employees. It can also be said that randy intelligence is much more important whence pure intelligence in shaping leadership success (cited in Sadri, 2012, pg 537).Managers use communication as a method to transfer meaning to others for the ultimate purpose of achieving their goals and objectives. The ability to buy the farm expeditiously depends upon the buss capability to empathise with his or her peers, that is, the managers level of ablaze intelligence. Golemans get a line asserts the notions of emotionally intelligent individuals are more successful at communicating their ideas, goals and intentions (cited in Zeidner, Matthews, Roberts, 2004, pg 386).Similarly, Wasielewski studies suggests emotionally intelligent individuals are able to excite and enthuse or make others feel cautious and wary (cited in George, 2000, pg 7). This sort of behavior go out consequently motivate or demotivate individuals in the workplace. Thus emotional intelligence is crucial as it al get-gos managers to communicate efficaciou sly and therefore achieve his or her goals by influencing the mood and emotion of his or her team.Bar On further asserts that managers are also able to use communication to encounter a positive result in environmentally demanding work situations (cited in Zeidner, Matthews, Roberts, 2004, pg 374). Managers willing only be able to do this if they understand their employees personal feelings, hence emotional intelligence is the tool that lets managers communicate effectually in any sort of situation. Regardless of whether the situation is difficult or not, emotional intelligence will always be significant because it allows the manager to communicate effectively with his or her employees (cited in George, 2000, pg 8).A way out of managers who communicate with high emotional intelligence creates value adding member interaction, which in turn enlarges team productivity. imperious emotions of certain individuals such as managers can influence team member mentality and is high potent ial to increase group cohesion through relationship building, this is also known as positive emotional contagion (cited in Ashanasy and Daus, 2002, pg 79). However oppositely, negative emotions of an individual can decrease the efficiency of other team members since negative attitudes can infect co-workers and is hard to reverse (cited in Ashanasy and Daus, 2002, pg 79).Consequently due to these polar outcomes the motive for emotionally intelligent managers is crucial to the operation of a team to complete tasks efficiently. More importantly, high emotional intelligence can impact a leaders and teams ability to construct team goals and objectives (cited in Ashanasy and Daus, 2002 pg 81). This is asseverate by Rosete and Ciarrochi study in which concluded that high emotional intelligent leaders performed more efficiently and was not affected by cognitive ability (cited in Sadri, 2012, pg 538). Apart from leadership extremely emotional intelligent team members also increased team e fficiency.A Study by Jordan and Troths concluded this through their experiment where they concluded high emotional intelligent team members performed more exceptional then low emotional intelligent teams (cited in Sadri, 2012, pg 538). Thus leadership through high emotional intelligent individuals increases the value of a team, however high emotional intelligent team members also contribute to positive team interaction. Another aspect of high emotional intelligent leaders is improved job satisfaction and hence increased performance.Emotionally intelligent leaders are able to influence shared beliefs of groups, allowing them to shape ones abilities and skills to communicate and co-ordinate with each other (cited in Z angstrometakis and Moustakis, 2011, pg 84 ). These shared beliefs allow groups to have high job satisfactions due to improved performance due to positive emotional norms created by the manager (cited in Zampetakis and Moustakis, 2011, pg 84). Henceforth, an increase in g roup job satisfaction will allow individual satisfaction growth, this will in turn increase overall efficiency.In the studies of Ashkanasy and Daus, we can also view the importance of emotionally related job satisfaction. The study contains scenarios, which stress how negative satisfaction partly due to leadership problems can have adverse affects upon other team members. Research has also exemplified the need for emotionally intelligent managers to heighten positive emotions with employees particularly in the sales industry to increase customer rentention (cited in Ashkanasy and Daus, 2002, pg 77). Hence, job satisfaction is highly correlated with the emotional intelligence of managers. line of products satisfaction is clearly an important factor in the workplace as it is able to increase efficiency. As organisations and businesses seek to increase efficiency, the use of emotionally intelligent individuals will be employed to redefine groups and individuals in the workplace. Over time as stronger evidence builds upon that high emotional intelligent individuals make better leaders, companies will undergo a transition to recruit or train emotionally intelligent individuals. As companies continually gain knowledge in this field, competitive strategies will be formed to better firm performance.As they embrace these types of changes, competitive advantages particularly in the sales industry will experience large competitive advantages. Communication from highly emotionally intelligent allows more positively regulated team ambitions and hence allow greater team collaboration, which increases inter-personal relationships. Team collaboration is highly effective in producing superior job satisfactions and consequently job efficiency. Hence, emotional intelligence is essential for leaders to manage successfully in workplaces. References Sadri, G. , (2012).Emotional intelligence and leadership development, Public Personnel Management, Vol. 41 No. 3, pp. 535-548 contro l Viewed 10 April 2013 <http//web. ebscohost. com. wwwproxy0. library. unsw. edu. au/ehost/detail? vi d=3&sid=7e41ae83-e0b2-455b-ac25-1568e4f33f6f%40sessionmgr110&hid=112&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZQ%3d%3ddb=buh&AN=79656429> Khosravi, R. D. , Manafi, M. , Hojabri, R. , Aghapour, A. H. , Gheshmi. R. , (2011). The relationship between emotional intelligence and effective delegation. International diary of Business and Social Science, Vol. 2 No. 19, pp. 223-235 Date Viewed 10 April 2013 lthttp//search. proquest. com. wwwproxy0. library. unsw. edu. au/abiglobal/docview/904526890/13D5FC8D9CD73AEC7F5/1? accountid=12763> Zeidner, M. , Matthews, G. & Roberts, R. D. , (2004). Emotional Intelligence in the Workplace A Critical Review. Applied Psychology, 53(3), pp. 371399. Dated Views 10 April 2013 <http//onlinelibrary. wiley. com. wwwproxy0. library. unsw. edu. au/inside/10. 1111/j. 1464-0597. 2004. 00176. x/abstractjsessionid=BC2DC14C7B9282FD9361B666E034A2C9. d02t 02> George, J. M. , (2000). Emotions and Leadership The Role of Emotional Intelligence. Human Relations, 53(8), pp. 10271055.Date viewed 10 April 2013 <http//search. proquest. com. wwwproxy0. library. unsw. edu. au/docview/231437575/fulltextPDF? accountid=12763> Ashkanasy, N. M. & Daus, C. S. , (2002). Emotion in the workplace The new challenge for managers. The Academy of Management Executive, 16(1), pp. 7686. Date viewed 10 April 2013 <http//www. jstor. org. wwwproxy0. library. unsw. edu. au/stable/4165815> Zampetakis, L. A. & Moustakis, V. , (2011). Managers Trait Emotional Intelligence and Group Outcomes The Case of Group Job Satisfaction. SmallGroupResearch, Vol. 42 No. 1, pp. 77-102 Date Viewed 10 April 2013

Saturday, May 18, 2019

Extended Essay: How Does Culture Influence Social Conformity to Groups? Essay

IntroductionI stock-still remember my first day of American Government class fresh public year. The teacher asked us, What atomic number 18 the three branches of government? I wanted to agitate my hand and say Judicial, congressional, and executive. But no unitary(a) else raise their hands. I thought to myself, No cardinal else knows it, maybe I dont know it. I dont want to patronage out on my first day. Better just keep my hand down. As it turns out, my solving was correct. However, consonance got the better of me. Conformity is modifying unitarys behaviors or actions because of others. The becharm of compliancy can be subdivided into informational ( world twist because of information) and normative (being playd because of affable pressure) influence. Conformity is an authoritative topic because consistency has a pro instal fix on human behavior in gatherings. Collective human behavior can al nigh be defined by compliancy. Humans constantly look to others for support and knowledge, and when we see others act in a ad hoc way, we mimic it in the form of adaptism. To take on a more(prenominal) global view of compliancy, it is important to understand how pagan differences amongst different civilizations impact the ways in which the population of those assimilations leave behind be affected by conformity. Perhaps some one from the fall in States will conform more than someone from Germ all, or China, or Mexico. Then we must undertake the question, how does market-gardening influence social conformity to roots?In this show we will first take a look at what conformity is and what may cause it indoors a nicety, and so we will discuss three scenes of a nuance that may modify that cultures directs of conformity. The first major positionor we will examine is the level of nutrition accumulation at bottom the indian lodge. The second major factor we will examine is the impact of a countrys industrial development on conformi ty. The third major factor that we will examine is how individualism or fabianism will influence acultures level of conformity. loving Causes of ConformitySherif defined conformity as being influenced by the assessments of others. (Sherif, 1935) In the context in which we are speaking, conformity can be defined as the prosody of ones behavior or judgment due to influence of a group. Sherifs conformity experiment was designed to show how the judgments of others would influence the judgment of a strain content. Sherif used the autokinetic effect as the humble of judgment. The autokinetic effect is when a dot of light in a dark room appears to move because the eye has no other frame of reference. Subjects were instructed to observe the light and certify investigateers the distance the light moved. Sherif operationalized his variable by first testing overmatchs individually and then testing them in groups to see how this would affect their reported observations of how far the l ight moved. If the reported observations of the dots movements converged to a central measure, Sherif would know that conformity had played a role in altering his subjects judgment. What Sherif discovered was that when subjects were tested individually, their judgments of the dots movements alter greatly, whateverwhere from 2 to 15 inches (Sherif, 1935). When the subjects were then tested in groups, their measurements maintained a distinct level of divergence from each other. However, when the subjects were tested first within a group, the subjects middling judgments of the dot movements converged within a particular range that would express that the subjects were abiding to a common norm that had been established in the group. In addition, when the subjects were later tested individually, their judgments on the dot movement would diverge from the group norm, still less(prenominal)(prenominal) significantly than when the subjects were first tested individually. Sherif wrote th at he felt this was the most significant observation of his experiment.What Sherif observed is one of the constitute factors of conformity- that the norms which people conform to are non always intentionally established, but can occur by nature, and these naturally occurring norms will be conformed to due to mans tendency to want to barrack in as a part of the group. This is reinforced by another one of Sherifs observations during this experiment. During the last session of his experiment, Sherif added the question Do you think you were influenced by the judgments of the other psyches in the experiments, to which 25% of the subjects responded that they were. Sherif commented that this was a comparatively small fare of subjects relative to the results. Although it is possible that some subjects lied and responded no to this question, it is possible that some of the 75% of subjects who give tongue to they were not influenced by the other subjects in the experiment were apt(pre dicate) unaware of the fact that they were being influenced, showing that people can unknowingly conform to naturally established norms. Although Sherifs experiment was not cross-cultural, it can still help us understand why people conform to their individual cultures. Sherif speculated that the cause of conformity was mans desire to fit in to the group. In a cultural context, this means that if a person is a part of a culture, then that person would fall in desire to modulate their actions so that they fit into their specific culture. This overly suggests that the more immersed one is in their culture, the more conformity will be emphasize in that culture and the more they will conform to their culture. So although Sherifs experiment was not cross-cultural, the conclusions drawn from his experiment can still help us understand the relationship among culture and conformity.In 1951, Asch sought to try another conformity experiment that would respond to the critique of Sherifs e xperiment that the stimulant drug was too ambiguous. Instead of victimization an ambiguous stimulation like the autokinetic effect, Asch used a very concrete stimulus. For his experiment, four greenbacks were shown on a projector and subjects were asked which line of three matched the other line. In groups of 8, what subjects didnt realize was that the other 7 people in the group were actually confederates of Asch, instructed to all unanimously give the wrong answer twelve out of eighteen times. Aschs comportment was to see if this unanimous agreement in the group of a blatantly wrong answer would socially pressure the subject into going on with the group. In this experiment, unlike Sherifs, the group was intentionally trying to fetch the subject to conform, and the groups response to the stimulus was clearly incorrect. Under normal circumstances, subjects gave incorrect responses less than 1% of the time. However when the pressure of the group was applied, the reckon of inco rrect responses rose to 37%, with 74%subjects conforming to the confederates responses on at least one diminutive trial. Asch had shown something about conformity that Sherif was unable to prove- that conformity could cause a subject to go against their own judgment and conform to the group. Asch speculated that conformity could occur due to a distortion of the subjects on any one of three levels perception, judgment, or action. If there is distortion on perception, then the subject perceives the stimulus incorrectly and is unaware of the conflict, and believes the group to be correct. If there is distortion of judgment, then the subject is aware of the conflict but conclude the majority is correct and reject their own judgment. If there is distortion on the action level, the subject is aware of the conflict, concludes the group is incorrect, but goes along with them anyways due to pressure. Asch also find the two types of group influence. If the subject is influenced because the y think the group is better informed than them, this is informational influence. If the subject conforms because they want to fit in with the group, this is called normative influence. Asch also performed tests in this experiment to see how other factors would affect a subjects conformity. One variation of this experiment Asch performed was adding and subtracting people. Asch discovered that as few as only three confederates was enough pressure to get the subject to conform, but that the more confederates there were in the experiment the more likely it was that the subject would conform. Asch also performed experiments where subjects gave their answers in private, where one confederate would agree with the subject, and where the differences among the lines was smaller. When subjects gave their answers in private, normative influence is eliminated and conformity dropped significantly.When one confederate would agree with the subject, conformity dropped to only 5%, an 80% decrease. This is one very crucial fact about conformity. When one person breaks the unity of a group, the normative influence is eliminated. When Asch made the differences in the line lengths less significant, conformity increased. The data collected from this experiment and Sherifs observations, demonstrate another significant aspect of conformity. The more ambiguous something is, the more humans will tend to conform. This is because when humans are uncertain of what to do in a situation, we look to other humans for information. This is applicable to a real life scenario much(prenominal) as the grey area of morals. When humans see something morally wrong, they will typically go along with what the majority is doing, and will usually not intervene. Although Aschs experiments were not cross-cultural, the conclusions of his experiments and the theories of conformity formulated from them can most definitely be applied to a cross-cultural context, such(prenominal) as how culture affects confor mity. First of all, Asch considerd that there were two types of conformity normative, which is the influence caused by social pressure, and informational, influence caused by insecurity in ones own knowledge. These can both be applied to how people conform to cultures. normative influence can be caused by. If one is completely immersed in a culture, there is normative influence to fit into that culture. Informational influence can be a creation of culture. If a part of the culture is pedagogics the youth of that culture, than they are subject to the informational influence of their culture. Second, Asch showed that the more people in a group, the stronger the social influence. This could imply that a larger culture may micturate naughtyer(prenominal) levels of conformity than people of smaller cultures. Third, Asch showed that unanimity is extremely significant to a cultures levels of conformity. This may imply that the stricter a culture is, and the fewer dissenters from the c ulture there are, the stronger the social influence the culture will have on its subjects.The Effect of Levels of aliment Accumulation on Conformity in a SocietyIn 1967, J. W. Barry wished to replicate Aschs conformity experiment as a cross-cultural experiment to see how differences in the cultures would correlate with their levels of conformity. Barry divided the peoples he was studying into two basic groups. The first group was societies with high levels of food-accumulation such as agricultural and rural societies, and the second was societies with low levels of food-accumulation such as fishing and hunting peoples. Barry recreated Aschs line-length conformity test between the Temne peoples of Sierra Leone in Africa, an agricultural people, and the Eskimo of Baffin Island, a hunting people in northeastern Canada. Barrys aim was to see how levels of conformity would vary between these two distinctly different cultures. Barry formulated his hypothesis by studying each culture and observing qualitys of their cultures that he thought would be pertinent to levels of conformity.Barry analyse cultural characteristics of each peoples such as how they characterized success in their cultures, how lenient each culture was when rearing their young, if the peoples were typically group reliant or self reliant for success in their cultures, and of course, if they were a high food-accumulating society or if they were a low food-accumulating society. Barry hypothesized that there would be a correlation between the different cultures levels of food accumulation and their levels of conformity more specifically, in the Temnes agricultural, high food-accumulating society would show higher levels of conformity than the Eskimos hunting-oriented, low food-accumulating society, where he expected to find let down levels of conformity. Barry tested the two different cultures using a variation of Aschs line test. Instead of having eight confederates supply false responses to the test subject, the subject was presented with a sheet of paper with 9 lines on it, and was asked to match the top line with one of the lower lines by length. But before responding, the researcher would say, I am going to give you a hint. just about Temne (or Eskimo) people say this line (an incorrect line) is equal in length to the one at the top. Which one do you say? (Barry, 1967) After performing his experiment, Barry found that the difference in conformity rates between the Temne and Eskimos was great enough and with statistical significance, so it confirmed his hypothesis that the Temne peoples did in fact show higher rates of conformity than the Eskimo peoples. Barrys conformity experiment shows how culture affects conformity. Barry studied two different cultures and renowned significant differences between them, and then tested each culture the same way to measure their several(prenominal) levels of conformity. Barry discovered a key characteristic about conformity- the con nection between how a society collects food and their conformity levels. Although that is a broad connection, Barrys theory was that how food is accumulated in a culture affects other aspects of that culture such as leniency in parenting, levels of independence granted to children, and what characterizes success, and these factors are what determine the levels of conformity for cultures. Low food accumulating societies have very independent individuals and characterize success with independence whereas high food accumulating societies have very interdependent individuals and characterize successthrough community.Impact of Modernization on a Countrys Levels of ConformityAnother significant difference between cultures that can impact levels of conformity is how industrialized and modernized they are, and studying how this has affected levels of conformity among the people of that country. In 1984, Kagitcibasi did just that.Kagitcibasi performed a study on the value of children (Kagitc ibasi, 1984) to attempt to understand how several cultures on different levels of modernization would identify the importance of raising children (with reference to quantity), and what characteristics the peoples of those cultures would find in demand(predicate) in their children. Kagitcibasi studied nine countries- Indonesia, the Philippines, South Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, Turkey, Germany, and the United States. Kagitcibasi performed 20,403 interviews with families from these countries and asked them questions regarding what characteristics they would find most desirable in children. Subjects from countries such as Indonesia and the Philippines said the most desirable fictional character in a child was to obey their parents.On average, 86.5% of subjects from Indonesia said obedience of parent was the most desirable quality in children, and 82% of subjects from the Philippines agreed, as opposed to the United States, where only 39% of subjects said obeying ones parents was the m ost desirable characteristic in children. On the contrary, 49% of American subjects surveyed said being independent and self-reliant was the most important characteristic in children, whereas only 20% of Indonesian subjects said the same thing. In the United States, being independent and self-reliant was the second most chosen characteristic among subjects surveyed, second only to being a high-priced person. However, even higher than the United States percent of subjects place emphasis on independence and self-reliance is that of Singapore and Korea. This is an interesting observation because many studies have found collectivist (predominantly Asian) cultures to be more oriented towards conformity and less towards individual independence. But if this observationis studied with respect to industrialization and modernization, it is observed that these countries have gone under extremely rapid industrialization, which could have spiel the nuclear family model in these countries to b e more westernized, thereby emulating the west in levels of conformity as well.Kagitcibasi observed that overall, it is the nuclear family level which most impacts the levels of conformity in a culture by which it is meant that factors such as industrialization impact the nuclear family model, which in turn impacts a country/cultures levels of conformity. Kagitcibasi developed the Old Age surety appraise theory (Kagitcibasi 1982a). The Old Age Security Value is the theory that there is additional value in raising children in underdeveloped nations because if they are raised in a conforming way, which stresses values such as family loyalty, they will be more likely to take manage of their parents when they become elderly. The Old Age Security Value is less significant in industrialized nations because industrialized, modernized nations typically provide services such as healthcare, whereas a more traditional, less developed nation would not, meaning the elderly are more dependent on their children to care for them in old age, which will encourage raising children to be more compliant to parents. The Old Age Security Value concept relates to industrialization and conformity because the more industrialized a country is, the more the less significant the Old Age Security Value is, and therefore the less conformist the society will be.What we can ultimately understand from Kagitcibasis research on the correlation between industrialization and conformity is that less industrialized countries will be more culturally inclined to compliance, due to a modulation of the nuclear family model in which families are more dependent on each other for care and therefore put emphasis on compliance when raising children to encourage family loyalty and obedience of ones parents.Impact of Collectivism vs. Individualism on ConformityCollectivism is the social belief that the good of the group is more important than the good of the few or the individual. On the other hand, individ ualism is characterized by the belief that each member of the group should be independent and self-reliant, without a need to consider the eudaemonia of the group as a whole. When one considers the characteristics of conformity compliance, assimilation, putting the group above oneself, etc., it seems logical that collectivists would have a greater predisposition to conformity than laissez-faire(a)s. Professor Oh of Konkuk University wanted to test this premise with relevance to normative and informational influence. Ohs aim was to see if in an experiment, subjects from a collectivist culture (in this case India) would conform more than subjects from a collectivist culture (America). He also wanted to see if they would conform more in normative influence tests than in informational influence tests. Oh hypothesized that the Indian subjects would not only conform more, but would conform more specifically in normative influence tests. Oh performed an experiment with half Indian and ha lf American subjects, in which subjects were asked what the lowest allow for probability of successfully for a risk to be taken, such as winning an election of a sort. Under the condition of exposure, subjects were only informed of what other subjects had said was an appropriate probability of success for the risk to be taken, but not why. Because the reason why was not explained to subjects, any conformity on this test must have been because of normative influence because they were accustomed no notwithstanding information to better their judgment. Under the condition of persuasion, subjects were informed of other subjects responses, and as to why they made their decisions. Subjects were then left to decide for themselves based on more given information relevant to be given stimulus their own response. If subjects modified their judgments under this condition, it would be because they felt they were then better informed of the conditions of the stimulus. The average of the subje cts conformity scores was measured by the change in pretest to posttest response. The results of this experiment showed that Indian participants were far more inclined to conform then American participants. In addition, changes in conformity levels due to internalization were not shown with statistical significance between Indian and American subjects, while changes in conformity levels due to compliance were shown with statistical significance. This confirmed Hos hypothesis that collectivists are more inclined to conform to the group norm then individualists with regard to normative influence. One limitation of Hos experiment however, was that he did not use face-to-face social influence, but only informed subjects of what other subjects had stated in a second-hand manner. This wouldve negated some level of the compliance influence, which could have produced responses of higher levels of conformity between American and Indian subjects.Hos experiment examined a direct relationship b etween culture and conformity- the collectivist vs. individualist relationship. He studied two cultures and saw how subjects from each would respond differently to tasks involving conformity. Hos research helps us better understand this relationship between collectivism and conformity in a culture because his research showed that subjects of a collectivist society showed higher levels of conformity than subjects of an individualist culture.ConclusionIn this paper, I analyzed three aspects of cultures that can influence a culture or societys levels of conformity. I analyzed the relationship between food accumulation and conformity, the relationship between modernization and conformity, and the relationship between collectivism and conformity. Examining each of these relationships, it is evident that cultures that are characterized by community and societal unity tend to have higher levels of conformity than their more individualistic counterparts. This was shown by the Temne in Sierr a Leone, Africa, who were culturally very cogitate on the community. This was also shown by the several less modernized countries in Kagitcibasis study of modernization on conformity, whose cultural focus is care for the family. Lastly, this was shown by the Indians in Hos study, who showed high levels of social conformity as a sample of a collectivist society. From all these results we can conclude that culture influences social conformity to groups in that people in cultures characterized by community and social unity are more subject to social conformity than peoples of individualistic cultures because the emphasis they put on community causes the peoples of those cultures to be more conscious of the judgments of others and therefore more likely to modify their own judgments and conform to match those nearly them.ReferencesIndependence and conformity in subsistence-level societies Encyclopedia of Urban Ministry UYWI Urban Youth Workers Institute. (n.d.). UrbanMinistry.org Chri stian Social legal expert Podcasts, MP3s, Grants, Jobs, Books Home. Retrieved August 23, 2013, from http//www.urbanministry.org/wiki/independence-and-conformity-subsistence-level-societies Barry, J. (1967). Independence and Conformity in Subsistence-Level Societies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 7(4), 415-418. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from the USF LIbrary frame database. Bond, R., & Smith, P. B. (1996). Culture and Conformity A Meta-Analysis of Studies Using Aschs (1952b, 1956) LIne Judgement Task. Psychological Bulletin, 119(1), 111-137. Kagitcibasi, C. (1984). Socialization in Traditional Society A Challenge to Psychology. International Journal of Psychology, 19, 145-157. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from the USF Public LIbrary transcription database. McLeod, S. (n.d.). Asch Experiment Simply Psychology. Simply Psychology Articles for Students. Retrieved August 23, 2013, from http//www.simplypsychology.org/asch-conformity.html Oh, S. H. (2013). DO Collectivis ts Conform More Than Individualists? Cross-Cultural Differences in Compliance and Internalization. Social Behavior and Personality, 41(6), 981-994. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from the USF LIbrary System database. Sherif, M. (1935). A Study of Some Social Factors in Perception Chapter 3. Archives of Psychology, 27(187), 23-46. Retrieved August 16, 2013, from the USF LIbrary System database.

Friday, May 17, 2019

An Analysis of the Dramatic Impact of the Restaurant Scene in Death of a Salesman Essay

Death of a Sales firearm was first performed in 1949 and was seen to be a powerful and moving second of drama. I will now be going through the appeal and the impact of the play.First of e very(prenominal), the book of Death of a Salesman provide be verbalise to be a universal book, in the sense that it has broad range of themes and is a book for everybody. It has each sorts of aspects, and current aliveness situations that star has to bump off in mind. Lets first look at the characters. Willy Loman is an insecure and self-deluding travel salesman. Despite him desperately searching through his past, he is non the typical tragic hero that we thrust pose to depict. He is rather a man who doesnt achieve self-realization and self- fareledge.He fails to sack his per passwordal sorrow, and an emotional and spiritual understanding of himself. Willys crucial problem is the failure to understand the anguish love that is offered to him. This is the real problem, and tragedy of the play. In the end, he is forced to making the most extreme apply to allow punch to follow the Ameri sight Dream. In the end, we come venture him by his quote that he make to Charley, after all the high commissions, and the trains, and the appointments, and the years, youre worth more dead than alive. laggard Loman fundamentally call fors to test the truth to the highest degree himself. While the receive and brother alike, atomic number 18 in their self-delusional selves, and are unable to contract the miserable lives that they have, clout accepts failure and confronts it. Essentially, type slugs discovery of Willys affair drains him of all the religious be consistf he had in Willy. Willy sees garget as an underachiever, and a person that could rise to the top, yet clout on the other hand sees himself trapped in his fathers unrealistic ambitions. pigeon berrys normal identity crisis is a major aspect in the drama. In order to find it, he must(prenominal)iness expose his fathers delusions. riant Loman is seen as Willys incarnation but with all his whisk aspects. He is a difficult character to emphasize. He is a one-dimensional and emotionless character in the play. His empty vow at the end, which says he will beat this racket, is the full physical body of the lie down in which is the American Dream. He has filmdom ambitions, and is swallowed up by his lies that he is the assistant buyer, when in occurrence he is dependable an assistant to the assistant buyer, and is a no body. He is in like manner depicted in this quote, My sustain apartment, a car, and plenty of women, and still, goddamit, Im lonely. This liking represents that in particular, Happy has not got such a delightful life, as we have come to conclude, but in detail, he has an inner-emptiness. He feels as though he is a failure, and knows it, just like Willy, but never admits it.Linda Loman is one of the more reasonable characters in the play. She symbolises the n eed for patience and reason, as well as being the most realistic. She is a lot the emotional core of the play.Well, the analysis of these characters should allow for an root word of what the play portrays. Here is the impact and the appeal, along with the major themes. The play is very much a mix of all sorts of incompatible things, tragedy, social chin waggingary and family drama. The American Dream is one of the most talked ab turn up issues in the stainless play. Essentially, Willy depicts the American Dream very well. He believes wholeheartedly in what he considers its promise. He believes that a well liked and personally fascinating man in business will indubitably possess all the worldly wealth and possessions that the world has to offer.However, his regular obsession with the vision of a fiddling man with the qualities of being well liked and personally attractive is farfetched. Rather, a more understandable man would have depicted the American Dream as being ident ified as, hard running(a) and positive approaching that leads to success. Eventually it is this very denial of how life workings that destroys Willy. He approaches Bernard as a nerd because he studies hard and tries for success.Yet when he finds that Bernard reaches promise and success, and when he looks at his own life, he is left(a) in a disparity, as he realises what a blind and fake kind of vision he lived for. It is actually this very idea that can be very appealing. It teaches a lesson well-nigh(predicate) life, success and failure. How a man, fixed on a blind vision, realises that it is not superficial value that create a successful man, it is the desire to be the best, to unavoidableness to learn, to strive for success, rather than abide for it. It is this very concept, in which we see a man crumble to a grinding halt. It is actually a truly remarkable aspect, as in it makes you withdraw well-nigh lifes goals, and it is the educated bulk that prosper, not the fake.An other major issue in the play is betrayal. In the play, Willy constantly believes that Biff has betrayed him, in the sense that Biff hasnt followed his ambitions and dreams that he had for him. Willy believes Biff has to follow his dreams and his path, and the moment Biff tries to reject this, he takes it personally, and says its spite. Overall, Willy fails as a salesman, to ultimately, sell the American Dream to his son. Then, Willy assumes that Biff has betrayed him because of his discovery of his affair with The Women.Whereas, Biff, who called Willy a phoney detailed fake believes Willy, with his unending ego-stroking lies, betrays him. What interests here, is the dealinghip between father and son. Here we have, a son dying for the truth and being realistic about(predicate) what and who he is, confronting a father, surrounded by his own self-delusions about the American Dream, and to force it upon his son. This is a very kindle concept, which puts up the idea that Willy has r eally betrayed Biff, firstly because of his affair, which hurt Biff so much, as he loved his father and mother dearly, and excessively the fact that Biff is not given the chance to be realistic about himself and his family. I theorise it is the relations between father and son that are most interesting here.Another issue in the play, that the sense of hearing will notice, is abandonment. When Willy is a child, his father, leaving him and Ben alone, abandons him. Ben eventually leads for Alaska, and Willy is left pondering over his warped vision of the American Dream. Thus, he tries desperately to prove it to his family, and Biff, who Willy loves dearly and has great ambitions for, drops Willy with his dreams when he finds out his betrayal to Linda. Finally, in the eating place scene, which will be mentioned later, Willy finally believes his American Dream is coming to light, but all his illusions are bust, and he is left babbling in the wash elbow room.It seems that every aba ndonment causes great despair over Willy. It actually preferably s rack upens the audience when they see this lonely figure of a man, living up to his fake dreams, to be shattered and let down by those dearest to him. What is interesting, is that how we come about seeing this. His abandonment by his sons can be seen to be his incapability of being realistic about life, and that is one of the main reasons why Biff is uneasy towards Willy. The fact that he is al focuss in unrealistic dreams. So generally, it can be interpreted in different ways.One interesting point I would like to make is that Willy has this tendency to invent figures. In the play he has a very important quote, And when I saw that, I cognise that selling was the greatest career a man could extremity. Cause what could be more satisfying than to be able to go, at the age of eighty-four, into twenty or thirty different cities, and pick up the phone, and to be remembered and loved and helped by so umpteen another( prenominal) different people? Willy speaks of Dave Singleman here, as a legend and the embodiment of the American Dream.Here is his mistake. His failure to understand his own life, leads to his demise. Willy fails to realise the loneliness, and hopelessness of Singlemans job. It is that very failure to realise this, that sees around(prenominal) his sons abandon his fake Dream. It is also the fact that he mythologizes Biff and Happy. He is quoted as saying Biff is like Adonis and Happy like Hercules. This is because he believes Biff and Happy to be the absolute embodiment of the American Dream. He sees them as being perfect in every way required, but the reality is extremely different.Moreover, the fact that there includes many different types of symbols also makes you think. It can be said that the rubber hose is an important symbol in itself, as it constantly reminds us of Willys desperate attempts to commit suicide. Here, the rubber hose represents the attempts at killing himsel f with gas, which is, the supplier of his families basic needs. This very idea of inhaling gas is the concept that Willy thinks, is a crucial battle to afford such simple necessities.Diamonds are what I find, extremely puzzling. These diamonds represent two things to Willy. They are, the validation of ones labour, and the ability to pass actual material goods to children. They are both what Willy is craving for. On the other hand however, they are a representation of the discovery of Ben in Alaska, and Willys desperate failure as a Salesman. The mistake of Willy, essentially what he feels as well, is that he didnt go with Ben to Alaska and peruse the American Dream for which he craved so much. Instead, he stayed for what the Dream promised, financial security. So, at the end Ben encourages Willy to enter the Jungle and obtain the diamond, thus, to kill himself for the insurance money to make his life meaningful in at least one sense.So, these ideas were the key concepts of the play . This is exactly what makes it a fantastically interesting and complicated piece of drama. The fact, that so many lessons are learned, so many ideas are played, so many themes and genres are come crosswise. These are what make Death of a Salesman, a truly magnificent piece of writing. It is the fact that it takes the audience into a whole bundle of new ideas and aspects to consider that makes it remarkable. The fact also, that it is set in the 1980s makes it even more interesting.It depicts the typical nature of the American Dream. Arthur Miller (the author) tries to get the idea across that the American Dream is nothing but an illusion it is hard working that really matters. Maybe some time ago it was the case, but not now. This idea is clearly implied throughout the book. For example there is Biffs struggle to get the concept of realism across to his father, there is Happys lies and failure, also Bernards excellent success, and also Charleys success even when he was not well like d, and finally, Willys failure in life. It is all these ideas that make the play truly astonishing.Now, after describing the play as a whole, I will move on to the restaurant scene, one of the most important scenes in the entire play. It is the climax of the whole Drama. I will first describe the scene thence explain and comment on it with quotes.It starts of with the scene in Franks Chop House. afterward Happy meets a particular girl, Miss Forsythe, Biff explains to Happy that he waited six hours to see Bill Oliver, and Oliver didnt even remember him. He quotes after that, I even believed myself that Id been a salesman for him And then he gave me one look and- I realized what a ridiculous lie my whole life has been. Weve been talking in a dream for fifteen years, I was a shipping clerk. Biff asks where he ever got the idea that he was a salesman for Oliver, he was all a shipping clerk. However, it was Willys lies and exaggerations that led him to believe he was a salesman when h e actually wasnt. Then Biff accounts how he stole Bill Olivers give pen and was disgusted with himself.Happy tells Biff to go tell Willy lies, and say he is thinking about the preposition and then Willy will eventually forget the whole matter. When Willy arrives, he reveals the shocking news, Im not interested in stories about the past or any crap of that kind because the woods are burning, boys, you understand? Theres a big blaze going on all around. I was fired today. After that he countrys he needs some good news to go back to Linda with, because he is essentially in disparity, and his life is wrecked. Then everything goes off. Willy says to Biff that he cant blame him because he is the one who failed math. Young Bernard appears in Willys flashback, telling the news to Linda, that Birnbaum flunked Biff. Biff gets solely confused at his fathers crazy responsibilityments, and tries to calm him down and explain the truth to him, but it reaches a stage where Willy refuses to list en to Biffs story. In an absolute frenzy,Willy goes into a state of cult and has a semi-daydream about the discovery of The Woman in the Boston hotel. Biff backs down, and then desperately starts to lie in an attempt to save his father, Oliver talked to his partner about the Florida idea. You listening? He-he talked to his partner, and came to me Im going to be all right, you hear? pop, listen to me, he said it was a question of amount Then, when Biff cant lie anymore, because he is afraid that Willy will get hurt, Willy is insulted by Biff, thinking it is spite and lashes out at his son, he quotes You rotten little louse, are you spiting me? whereas Biff would never do that, because he loves his father and only wants to help him.Then Willy goes off into the washroom and talks to himself. Biff returns to Happy in the Chop House, and accuses Happy of not caring about his father. Essentially Biff reveals the real character that Happy is. Biff tells him in a crucial quote, I sense i t, you dont give a goddam about him. Happy says he should go out with the ladies. Biff leaves in guilt and anguish. Happy claims to the ladies that Willy is not his father, hes just a guy and then he frantically asks for the bill, Stanley doesnt respond, so they all leave, and Willy is left babbling in the washroom alone.So, before I get on to the scene with The Woman, I want to explain this. First of all, as Willy has encountered Howard, Bernard and Charley, and has seen their success, his dreams are seriously dented. His illusions and constructed reality is falling apart. Biff wants to essentially leave behind all the lies and fake illusions and start a new beginning, one with his father relating to honesty. Willy, however, wants his sons to aid him in constructing a false truth. One that includes reliving the American Dream for him. Willy takes Biff so far, as to learn a false report of the interview with Bill Oliver and Happy is very willing to accept. When Biff starts to indu ce a negative report, Happy jumps in with positive remarks to keep the talk going, he quotes, Sure pop, sure, he told him my Florida idea. He comes up with false information about the interview, and here, it is absolutely clear that he has only his own interests in mind, however the damning evidence comes later.After a moment of weakness and defeat, Willys ultimate fear is lived in the restaurant. He is in an emotional outweardown, and needs Biff and Happy to give him confidence, as he knows he is not liked anymore, and he knows it better than anybody. Eventually we see the state of abandonment as before, when Biff and Happy reject him. Willys dream is coming apart, and Happy and Biff have dented it more than any other. For Biff, the experience of finding out the truth about himself and the fact that he is not a salesman for Bill Oliver, makes him even more determined to crack the lies that surround him, at any cost. Willy refuses to hear out Biff because he wants to stay in delusi ons.He doesnt want the truth, because he realises how bitter it is, and he knows it. Essentially it can be said that he cant handle the truth. On top of that Biff doesnt want to hear Willys lies because he is shopworn of them, he doesnt want them repeated and repeated. He wants his Dad to realise him. Biff believes, that he must conquer the heavy lies put on him, and realise the truth about his personal degradation. Both Willy and Biff know the differences between the death of a salesman in Singleman and Willys own pathetic vision of death. The fanny here is that Biff understands that behind the American Dream lies a lonely, and terrible death, one that Singleman himself had. Happy and Linda want Willy to die as he is, in delusions and false truth, but Biff is determined to reach the real truth.Now, this is essentially what is going on in this scene. Biff tries desperately to uncover the lies about himself and Willy, but Willy wint let him explain. Its as almost if Willy doesnt w ant to hear. Another point to add is that before Biff tries to explain things, we find out he is slightly on alcohol and nervous, and it is essentially because he wants to say he is worthless, a no body, and a bum, something that his father will not accept. Biff tries to explain but Willy wont let him.This implies Willy is saying, I want to stay in illusions, Im empty, I dont want to know the truth. Biff then quotes, His answer was- Dad youre not letting me tell you what I want you to hear This is very interesting, because Biff is about to tell a half lie, but thats not what he wants to do, because he wants to get straight. He wants to come out with the truth, and he also loves his father, and doesnt want to hurt him. With the key line of hes just a guy Happy shows himself as a distorted, thinner image of Willy. However, Willy has a good side to him, his love for his family, and his sense of humour are his good sides. Overall, this scene where we see Biff and Happy, can be said to b e the emotional climax of the whole play, as many different ideas and concepts are revealed.Now, I will be describing the scene where Willy is left alone in the rest room, and is in a flashback.When his sons have departed from the Chop House, Willy is left alone in his daydreams and flashbacks about Biffs visit to Boston. In his daydream he is in a hotel room in Boston with his mistress. After telephoning repeatedly, Biff is knocking on the admission. The Woman pesters Willy to go answer. We learn something new about her, as she quotes, You know you ruined me, Willy? From now on, whenever you come to the office, Ill see that you go right through to the buyers. No waiting at my desk any more, Willy. You ruined me. She doesnt t actually mean Willy ruined her, but it is just a sort of joke. However, this means, that Willy met her in a buyers office and she was presumably, the secretary. Willy is clearly nervous about the surprise visitor, and he orders her to stay in the washroom bec ause it might be a clerk investigating their affair.Willy answers the door and Biff is there. He tells Willy he flunked maths and asks Willy to persuade the teacher, Mr. Birnbaum, to pass him. Then Willy quotes, Come on, lets go downstairs and get you a malted. Willy is clearly trying to get Biff out of the room quickly. When Biff imitates the maths teacher, The Woman laughs in the bathroom. Willy insists that it is nothing. The Woman suddenly enters the room.Willy quickly pushes her out into the hall way and says that she is a buyer staying in a room next door who needed to shower in Willys room, because her room was being painted. Biff then, astonished, sits on his suitcase, crying silently, and not buying his fathers lies at all. Willy says he will go talk to the math teacher, but in tears, Biff says he should forget it. The most harmful blow was when he quoted, You-you gave her Mamas stockings Then he quotes, You fake You phoney little fake You fake Biff leaves in tears, and W illy is left on the floor quoting, I gave you an order Biff, come back here or Ill beat you Come back here Ill welt youStanley pulls Willy out of his daydream. Willy is still on his knees yelling and ordering Biff. Stanley pulls him back up, and Willy attempts to tip him, but Stanley sneakily puts it back into Willys pocket. Willy asks him frantically where a seed store is, he must countersink something, he quotes, and zilchs planted I dont have a thing in the grungeSo, what did this all mean? Well, Biff discovers the affair of Willy and calls him phoney little fake, so, this means that he suddenly, at that moment, realises whats beneath Willys facade and despises the man behind it. This is what saddens Willy the most, to be exposed in that way. From then on, Willy decides that the reason for Biff rejecting his illusions and the reason for his failure in life is because of what he found out. Of course, in logic, Biff hated Willy for his affair, and therefore hated his ambitions and dreams as well.In this way, Willy mixes up professional with personal. Willy, in his understanding of the American Dream, believes that it has no need for professional success rather, he thinks that one can derive happiness without these things. Essentially, he thinks success derives from immaterial and ephemeral concepts, of being well liked and having personal attractiveness. Willy believes, that because Biff doesnt respect him anymore, as a father or person, he automatically rejects the American Dream. However, Willy is correct. This knowledge of the disgust that Willy has committed tarnishes any emotional aspects, so therefore Biff rejects the whole idea of the fake American Dream, that Willy is so desperate to sell.Another aspect is the symbol of Lindas stockings. Earlier in the play, Willy was preoccupied with the state of Lindas stockings and her mending them. Until the restaurant scene, which is the most climatic scene where Biff tries to uncover all the lies touch th e Loman household, the only subconscious trace of Willys adultery is the complete and utter persistence to throw outdoor(a) Lindas stockings. These stockings are the ultimate symbol of betrayal and guilt, which overpowers Willy. When Biff then rejects his ambitions for him and the American Dream, his Dream also starts to crack.Willys delirious interest in the seed shop and the end reveals a lot about him. At that moment Willy is a failure. He is poor, unemployed and has nothing to give to his sons. He tries to give Stanley a dollar to portray to him at least that he does own something. However, it was a pretty pathetic and shaky attempt. Stanley though doesnt accept it, because at that time he feels dear to Willy since both sons have left him. In addition, the failure to raise Biff the way he wanted means he has to plant some vegetables at least, to prove his labour and to raise something successfully. The quote at the end, Nothings planted. I dont have a thing in the ground, is i mplying how Biff was able to break free of his American Dream, and the traditions of his family. Finally, the metaphor represents Willys natural preferences to do manual labour, and that being a salesman, was by all odds the wrong choice to go with.So, I have come to an end and the only conclusion that I can make of the play, is that it is a fantastically good idea. The themes have an extraordinary range. These include betrayal, the American Dream, material success, commerce, truth vs. lies/fantasy, family, instinct, work, death and dying well.Ill end with a quote made by Biff, which summed up Willy very well, He had the wrong dreams. All, all wrong.Background InformationThe whole play addresses many painful conflicts regarding the American national values. It offers a post war personal tragedy reading. I think mostly Miller is concerned with America revolving around the false myth that is based on capitalist economy and materialism constructed by the post war economy. A type of vi ew, which was held highly by the founders of America. The challenge of the American Dream was very radical at the time of World War II. Radical as it was, many of the artists and philosophers took up the idea of realistic views and personal meaning. At that time this was unusual, and the government didnt like the idea, they had awe already in the country.However, many people, even then, had so many conflicts, which included racial and economical, that they couldnt take up the idea of a social reformation. Many people still kept their ideological interests in hand. However in this day and age, it is obvious that the ideas of people like Arthur Miller have been put into practise, and now, the accent is of the American Dream is that it only works if you want to succeed and get to the top by working hard and being positive that you will do well. So, as a final comment, I think that Arthur Millers ideas and concepts managed to change the way people think about how society and families work, and what are the values to keep in mind.