Friday, December 27, 2019
The way a child develops can have many effects on their cognition and their abilities. One example of an effect on a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development is shown between the differences of bilinguals and monolinguals. When a child learns a second language, the mental abilities that adjust to that second language are flexible. The changes in the flexibility and the anatomical structure of a bilingual childÃ¢â¬â¢s brain are based on his/her neural plasticity. Which are eventually different from the change in the flexibitlity and the anatomical structure of a monolingual child. Although bilinguism exerts many effects on the developing brain, it still; however, conjures the idea of the causaulity of the differences and the anatomy differences compared to monoliguism. In forth of achieving this, many reserachers strive in studying the impact of bilinguism in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life by understanding the causaulity of the differences and the brain anatomy differences to that of monolinguism. Ellen Bialystok, Fergus I.M Craik, and Gigi Luk (2012) studied the impact of bilinguism in oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life by explaining the effects of bilingualism on cognition and its mechanisms. Ellen et al. (2012) found that overall bilinguals exerted better executive control than monolinguals. One possibile mechanism of this difference was mainly due that bilinguals exerted usage of a joint activation. Meaning that, the bilinigualÃ¢â¬â¢s mind showed activation for both languageses and that there were an interaction between them, even whenShow MoreRelatedBilingualism Does Improve Brain Functioning919 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagescan deviate from the main language spoken, bilingualism does improve brain functioning, because your brain has to work harder to understand two languages simultaneously. This keeps the mind fresh, it requires the ability to switch from one language to another without losing detail of what topic is being spoken about, and it forces the brain to resolve internal conflict, which in turn works out the brain and strengthens its cognitive muscles. Bilingualism would definitely fall within the behaviorRead MoreBilingualism : A Culturally And Culturally Diverse Country Essay1413 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagescountry will be introduced to two or more languages from birth and will develop proficiency in these languages following their significant exposure to both. This is referred to as simultaneous bilingualism (American Speech-Language-Hearing Association, 2004). There are many misconceptions about simultaneous bilingualism that are believed to be persistent in society, even within professional groups including teachers, doctors and speech-language therapists (Hamers Blanc, 2000; King Fogle, 2006). ThisRead MoreMultidimensional Effects Of Bilingualism1117 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesscientists to examine bilingualism, its effects on cognition, and the processes bilingual individuals have used to control the languages they speak, understand and comprehend (Luo et al., 2012; Yow Li, 2015). Research presented the controversies of bilingualism and focused on the difficulty identifying who is or is not bilingual (Bialystok, 2011). Researchers agreed that bilingualism comprised of multidimensional aspects. Further, multidimensional aspects of bilingualism caused certain negativeRead MoreDisadvantages Of Bilingualism1104 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesother individuals that share the same language, and being able to express yourself in a beautiful way, while expanding different cultures. Although being bilingual is an advantage, it can also be a disadvantage according to The effects of bilingualism on childrens cognition. In the 2014 article, Kristina R. Olson states that speaking two different languages can be tough. Olson states that modern day citizens are encouraged to teach their children two or more languages, because of the statistics shownRead MoreBilingualism Is The Ability By Individuals1208 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIntroduction Bilingualism is the ability by individuals to use two linguistic systems languages. Children acquire bilingualism in their early years when they are regularly exposed to adults who speak two different languages such as German and French or English and Spanish. Research shows that the majority of people in the world today are bilingual, or multilingual (those who comprehend more than two languages), compared to monolingual (individuals who have learned only one language). While manyRead MoreBilingualism and Multiliteracies in Australia Essay1323 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThis essay will demonstrate the research that is implemented on children with bilingual ability; discussing three main issues in bilingualism which is: the maintaining childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s first language, social and cognitive benefits, also why bilingualism should be in cooperated into school programming/curriculum. Bilingualism can be defined as the ability to speak and/or write in two languages. In Australia English is the main language although in 1996, statistics show that 15% (2.5 million people) ofRead MoreBilingual Education : The Problems1695 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesshying away from it. Overall, bilingual education will mostly be helpful. Many people say that bilingual education helps students, no matter what age, develop flexible minds (Christoffels, 2015). Christoffels conducted a study on the effects of bilingualism on cognition, mainly the flexibility of the mind (2015). Christoffels studied Dutch high school students, both students in a bilingual education setting and students in a formal education setting (2015). He chose to study students who started aRead Moreintend to expose in their studies how Educational Neuroscience can reshape educational policies and1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesactivation. This findings implicate a new approach in teaching language and reading in that it shows the impact of bilingual language exposure in childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to achieve linguistic mastery and fluency and reading. Garbing and company proposed that bilingualism has a positive effect on executive controls. Since little is known about the effects of using two languages on an everyday basis; they intended to correlate it to executive functions through task based fMRIs, in which monolingual and bilingualRead MoreHow Bilingualism Affects Cognition And Whether Or Not The Effects3756 Words Ã |Ã 16 Pagesera of multiculturalism has arisen and with it has come the ability (or requirement) to learn more than one language, or in other words, becoming a bilingual or multilingual individual. However, with this new trend, controversy has arisen as to how this affects performance in terms of cognitive abilities. The purpose of this essay is to find out to how bilingualism affects cognition and whether or not the effects are positive. Cognitions is the term used to describe the process of knowing, reasoningRead MoreEssay on What Sets the Human Race Apart from Other Species830 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWhat sets the human race apart from other species on Earth? The answer can be summed up in three words; cognition, language, and creativity. We have the ability to think and create. The human race communicates in a unique way. Imagination is a powerful thing. We can form mental images, and through perseverance and combining cognitive forces with others, we can make those images reality. No species can create on the scale that we can. Sure, a beaver can build a dam, and a spider its web; but on a
Thursday, December 19, 2019
The First World War The First World War began as a spark and exploded into a merciless blood bath of money, power, and land. The little spark began in the mountainous Balkans of southeastern Europe where small state-sized nations argued back and forth. For hundreds of years many of these small nations were held under the gripping powers of Turkey, Russia, and Austria-Hungary. It started in the capital of Bosnia, Sarajevo. Bosnia was also a mini-nation of the Austria-Hungary Empire. On the day of June twenty-eight, 1914, the leader of Austria-Hungary and his wife were visiting the city. Shots rang out from a young Slavic nationalist heading for the two. They were both killed. This person lived in the neighboring nation ofÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦This force England to enact its defense agreement with France and join the Allied powers. Among the allied powers when the war ended were Great Britain, Ireland, France, Portugal, Italy, Russia, Romania, Serbia, and Greece. In the opposing side t he Central powers were Germany, Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey. Other European nations stayed neutral. In America, people felt that the bloodshed of the civil war was enough to deal with and fifty years later with handling this war was too much. The optimistic Americans wanted to stay neutral. By staying neutral nations were to obey a new set of neutral rights. Any nations that were waged in war were allowed to stop and inspect neutral vessels at sea under international laws (which were not policed in any sort of way). This was in order to make sure that any ship was not the enemy under neutral flags. The warring nations were allowed to confiscate any materials such as weaponry, if found. German submarines were threatening these special rights called the freedom of the seas. President Wilson strictly warned if any American ship was hurt, they would pay. Germany killed numbers of people with their submarines and sank three American ships. This heeded for Wilson to ca ll upon the American people to make preparations in case there is war. On April second, 1917, President Wilson asked for a declaration of war against Germany. The world must be safe for democracy, he said, as he insisted the Americans toShow MoreRelatedThe First World War1809 Words Ã |Ã 8 Pages The first world war was one of the most brutal and remorseless events in history; Ã¢â¬Ëthe global conflict that defined a centuryÃ¢â¬â¢. Over nine million soldiers and a large amount of innocent civilians lost their lives. Empires crumbled, revolution engulfed Russia and America rose to become a dominant world power. Huge armies deployed new weapons of devastating effect from rifles and pistols to torpedoes and flame throwers. These weapons were used not only in the trenches but by tanks too. This was anRead MoreThe First World War : The Great War1600 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages The First World War sometimes referred to as the European War was more commonly referred to as the Great War. So much in the world was changed by this war, so it simply by most known as the Great War. Ã¢â¬Å"It is because no other war until then had had such an impact on the world. It was the first war to affect all of the major nations of Europe and the world. It took many lives and changed the lives of m illions more.Ã¢â¬ (Rivera, 2014) Some countries do not refer to the war as great because theyRead MoreDiscussing The First World War1432 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesWhen discussing the First World War, there are a myriad of topics, theories and debates that can be brought up, especially when its regarding to its breakout and and what lead to it. There are multiple direct and indirect causes that all are interconnected with one another, making it very difficult to just discuss about one topic without it overlapping with another completely different topic.Ã£â¬â¬One of the most unquestionable causes that lead to the outbreak of the war was the alliance system that wasRead MoreThe Causes Of The First World War1406 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesOption A: What in your view were the causes of the First World War? How have historiansÃ¢â¬â¢ views on the war changed over time? Historical events are crucial in human thoughts since they understand themselves better in the present through analyzing their past occurrences. Historical events help us to know the causes of certain past events, therefore, making the cause to entail long-term ideology events and actions. Nevertheless, the causes of certain events may differ depending on the scale of historyRead MoreCauses of the First World War1164 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWorld War I Essay When a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s hunger for power and control become too great, the nation may be pushed to do things that may have harsh consequences. This was the case in the early 1900Ã¢â¬â¢s when the world engaged in its first major global military conflict. There were a number of causes of the First World War; due to the Treaty of Versailles, Germany accepted full responsibility for the war. Although the Germans had a large contribution in starting the war, they should not be fully heldRead MoreWeapons of the First World War698 Words Ã |Ã 3 Pages Research Overview of WW1 Weapons During World War I many new kinds of weapons and technology were invented and improved. Some of these weapons included tanks, chemical and biochemical weapons, grenades, and machine guns. Chemical Warfare was used for the first time on a large scale in World War I. There are two main types of chemical warfare, one affects the surface of the body they come in contact with and the other affects the nervous system. Almost all chemical warfare weapons needed to beRead MoreThe First World War I1305 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesJahnecke Mrs. Schartner U.S. History 2 AP/IB 19 October 2015 Unit 3 Notebook Essay The First World War fought from 1914 to 1918 was one of the largest and most brutal catastrophes fought in the 20th century. With nearly the entire European continent fighting a barbaric and everlasting war, the U.S. had eventually to get involved in order to reinitiate stability to Europe. Ultimately, the U.S. taking involvement in World War I had a profound political, economic, and social impact on the country. It increasedRead MoreOrigins of the First World War1435 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe First World War was an international conflict which erupted in July 1914 involving various nations across the world. Many historians and those who have studied the Great War tend to give varied opinions as to what initially sparked the outbreak. However, although these opinions between researchers differ, they do all tend to revolve around the hostility between the great powers of Europe, the violent assassination of the Austro-Hungarian Archduke Franz Ferdinand, and the controversial piecesRea d MoreThe Causes Of The First World War1395 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe causes of the First World War were similar and differed from the causes of the Second World War politically, economically, and socially. Both of these significant, historical events were substantially affected by the interaction of dominating societies during this time period. During the First World War, these leading societies were the European authorities of Britain, Germany, and Austria, with slight assistance from the U.S. However, the United States allocated their full engagement duringRead MoreThe Catalyst for the First World War1679 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe origins of the First World War are diverse, complicated and widely debated among historians, especially concerning the liability of Germany. Between 1871 and 1914, there are several elements that have contributed to destabilize the balance of European powers. Imperialism adopted by European countries, especially in Africa, the rise of Germany, which bui ld up the development of alliances between States and the expansion of nationalist movements are the main elements. 1) Germany, a new European
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
During the time prior to the infamous June 4 Massacre in Tiananmen Square China, there were numerous events in which provoked political tension and ultimately stimulated the massacre itself. These events date back to Hu Yaobangs death followed by the AFS seven requests, Deng Xiaopings editorial, the student hunger strike, Mikhail GorbacheVs visit to China and the imposed martial law causing the tragic massacre. The Chinese Government, citizens, students, PLA and even some foreign Journalists were impacted by these primary incidents to a great extent. April 15 1989, is the date of Hu Yaobangs death and historically the day which changed the lives of thousands of Chinese people forever. Hu Yaobang was a progressive man of moderate ideals who was pushing towards the freedom of dialogue and media. Hu was considered a traitor by the CPC as he did not uphold Maoist Ideology; however he was a hero to the majority of students and intellectuals who favoured democratic ideals. We will write a custom essay sample on Tiananmen Square Massacre or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Many students, intellectuals and even civilians were greatly impacted as they were discomforted by the lack of respect by the Government who made subdued funeral arrangements. So in response, 200,000 students had defied a ban to carry out a demonstration of mourning for Yaobang. In addition, they had delivered a petition to the Premier of the Politburo Standing Committee, Li Peng and demanded that the Government reassess his legacy. After such a successful demonstration at Yaobangs mourning which was not acted against by the Government, many students became aware of the potential of their large mass and its capabilities, and hence the death of Hu Yaobang was respectively the spark of a fire for the many Tiananmen Square protests of 1989 which would soon have a large- cale impact on the whole of China. The senior comrades are getting worried. l The student demonstrations had a minor impact on the CPC as they became somewhat concerned, not wanting them to escalate into anything bigger or continue on for any longer. The Autonomous Federation of Students was quickly growing in population as many students Joined by their own will. The AFS had seven imperative requests: re- evaluate Hu Yaobangs achievements and mistakes, completely denounce the Anti- Spiritual Pollution Campaign and the Anti Bourgeois Liberalisation Campaign, allow ree press and freedom of speech, disclose the income of the leaders and their families, cancel the ten 1987 Beijing Municipal Regulations against demonstrations, increase spending for education and improve living standards for intellectuals, and lastly to truthfully report the memorial activities. These requests were often demanded and chanted at the student demonstrations that were growing in size and frequency, up until the June 4 Massacre. The CPC were impacted exceedingly by these ongoing demonstrations as Xiaoping had described the protesters as, picking up the bowl to eat meat, and putting it down to curse their Mother. 2 During the non- violent demonstrations, hundreds of thousands of people in the square screamed out, Deng Xiaoping retire! 3 Again, the Government were increasingly impacted as they harshly replied with, We are dealing with the dregs ot society and a gang ot rebels who want to subvert our country. 4 The demonstrations and the initial seven requests were evidently impacting drastically on the Government and the students, but what about the civilians? Workers out on the streets transportation out of whack. 5 Of course civilians also were affected by these events as stated by Shangkun; even the public transport was out of order. Deng Xiaoping strongly belie ved that the student demonstrations, threatened to throw China into political turmoil. 6 as he repetitiously highlighted this in the April 26 editorial condemning the Tiananmen Square protesters.
Tuesday, December 3, 2019
Managing diversity is acknowledging the differences in people and taking them as valuable. Doing this helps in enhancing good managerial practices through avoiding discrimination and promoting inclusiveness. It is not given for good management to help someone in working effectively with diverse work force. In addition, there is difficulty in understanding the significance of diversity in a given area of specialization in management.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on The Employment Discrimination Against Muslims at Work Places specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Achieving excellence through diversity is one of the crucial goals. Diversity is a vital resource and can be defined as the human qualities that are different from our own. In other words, they are human features which are new to the social group we belong to. However, it is not unusual to find some of these features in another group. Diversity has many as pects or dimensions. It includes elements such as ethnicity, gender, age, ancestry, physical disabilities/abilities, religious beliefs, geographical location, income, educational background among others. To reduce employment discrimination against Muslims at work places there are several ways to go about it. These ways are discussed here in through examples. Taking an example of ABC, a Muslim who wears religious attire and applies for a position in a certain work place, but the employer fears that the attire may make the customers uncomfortable. From a labour rights stand point, the employer should not deny ABC that opportunity because of her religious affiliations. Discrimination in hiring of services due to religious background is unlawful. Also taking an example of Mohammad an Arab American taking complains to his manager that one of his work mates Bill harasses him. Bill insults him and intentionally embarrasses him in front of customers claiming that he is not competent. To sol ve this matter, MohammadÃ¢â¬â¢s manager should relay his complain to the right manager if he is not in charge of Bill. If Bill is then found guilty, a disciplinary action should be taken against him. And in order to curb the recurrence of the harassment the disciplinary action taken against the offender should be stern enough to deter a repeat of the same.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More In the back ground religious accommodation, four of the employees approaches their supervisor and make a request to be allowed to be praying in the conference hall. Previously, employees were at liberty to pray at their respective working stations. Solving their case as the employer, he should work closely with the employees. This should lead to finding an appropriate accommodation to meet the needs of the employees without causing inconveniences. However, when there is business to be carried out in the hall, the employer reserves the right to refute its use for private purposes like holding prayers by the workers. Jeddah a clerical worker wears head scarf according to the Muslim beliefs. Jeddah has been put under a long-term assignment with one of the JKLTemps. One of the customers has demanded that Jeddah be informed that when she is working front desk she should not put on her head scarf or else someone should take up her position. Her attire is in contrast with the clientÃ¢â¬â¢s expected dress code thus it presents a wrong image. For diversity, JKL may not comply with the request made by the client. In addition, making Jeddah put aside her head scarf or change her duties will amount into violation of the law by the client. The service provider JKL in the other hand should strongly not advocate for the action. Customer preference should not establish unnecessary suffering. The client should make an exemption regarding its dress code to allow Jeddah put on h er head scarf as a religious accommodation. Incase the client fail to withdraw the request, Jeddah should be assigned another job and be paid at the same rate and JKL fail to assign another employee to the client. Here is another example of Anwar whose origin is Egypt. He applies for a post to work as a security guard with ABC Corp a security company which offers services mainly at government buildings. The issue here is whether Anwar needs to be investigated about his background before he is hired. There is every possibility that he will be subjected to the usual traditional pre-employment security checks. Occassionary though ABC does not carry out background scrutiny in a discriminatory way. The company may demand for a security clearance in accordance to the federal statutes regulating the hiring of security officers.Advertising We will write a custom assessment sample on The Employment Discrimination Against Muslims at Work Places specifically for you for only $16 .05 $11/page Learn More In other cases turban and religious sword have very high chances to promoting discrimination and discomfort. Sikh women mostly have their hair uncut and it is covered with scarves. Practicing Jews at time may put on a skullcap constantly. Some Jews donÃ¢â¬â¢t put on clothes that mix linen and wool. This might compromise employers to accommodate their use alternative suppliers for the uniforms. Rastafarians have their hair in deadlocks and this may also require accommodation. Diversity of beliefs among religions lies in either allowing ordination of women as clergy or allowing them to hold leadership positions. Religious organizations area also included certain laws that prohibit discrimination. Catholics and Baptists in United States donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow women serving in highest leadership positions. In addition there are other religious groups that donÃ¢â¬â¢t allow women to serve as clergy and they include Orthodox Judaism and the church of God in Christ. Even after bans on women clergy in some organizations, in others women are ordained. The religious organizations that allow women to be ordained are Episcopalian, Presbyterian and Methodist. Several strategies can be applied in managing diversity in a workplace. There is need to emphasize specialization of skills in order to enable workers to work effectively in a job environment that is endowed with diversity. Also, one should make sure that good faith efforts are applied so as to lead in recruiting a diverse applicant pool, especially underutilized minorities and women. In addition one should focus on the requirements needed in an interview. Assessing experience and also considering transferable skills and demonstrated competences is also very crucial. These skills include analytical, organizational communication, and coordination skills. It is noteworthy that past experience does not always lead to efficiency or excellent performance on a new job or position. One s hould also use a panel interview format and should run questions and process by them. This will ensure that the issue of unintentional or institutional bias does not occur. It is crucial to make sure that suitable accommodations are put in place for disabled applicants. Finally, one should recognize his own cultural biases. Individuals should make efforts to find out the kind of stereotypes they have towards pother people and groups. They should also consider their preferred communication style. In certain cases, it is well to note that the required qualities of a candidate give a perfect reflection of our preferences as individuals.Advertising Looking for assessment on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More This assessment on The Employment Discrimination Against Muslims at Work Places was written and submitted by user Erika Dotson to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
To link modern rap back to traditions such as jump- rope songs or the dozens is to take the art form out of its cultural context; her analysis cements rap music into its cultural milieu, excluding any exploration into historical, transactional connections between rap and past oral traditions. If we avoid looking at rap culture as a means to an end, or as an outgrowth of cultural and political circumstance, we can focus on the music itself, and aka such connective jumps more easily.Hip-hops link to technology is overly apparent, but its essentialness link to literate communication and thought may not be as significant as some would believe: Rap lyrics are oral performances that display written (literate) forms of thought and communication. (Rose 88) Roses assertion is true, for the most part; but to what extent rap music depends upon literacy for the creation of its sound and culture is debatable. We will write a custom essay sample on Origin of Rap Music and its Dependance on High Technology or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page The fact that rap artists write lyrics and subsequently orally perform the texts is not sufficient grounds to sever the link between AP and non-textual royalty completely.Rose deems rap a far cry (Rose 88) from oral epic poetry; by breaking down dismissive assertions such as this one, we can expose an element of hip-hop culture that possibly transcends literate technology and the age of mechanical reproduction. In her book, Rose overlooks the cipher culture within the larger rap m USIA community. The term cipher essentially means a group of people freestyles rap lyrics one after another, in a kind of competitionfreestyles rap lyrics involves stringing verses together improvisational.The rappers try to maintain the lyrical flow by rhyming the consecutive verses as best they can, striving for the tightest off the top of the head rhyme. Freestyle sessions on urban street corners were essential to the beginnings of rap music, and the freestyle element plays a major role in todays hip-hop culture, as verified by Virginia rapper Mad Skills 1996 lyrics: Buck the bull*censored*in the cipher *censored* is true The rhymes get spit and the asss get tapped Some innings dont have jack?some innings Got contracts Representation keeping broths tighter Peace to Masc. who did time in the cipherRap music freestyle provides an interesting point of reference to royalty, in that its production involves techniqu es similar to those used by epic poets from pre-textual oral cultures. In Walter J. Ones book Royalty and Literacy, Eng details a study done by linguistic scholar Mailman Parry, and later extended by Lord, of the memorization and recitation of Homeric epics before the poems were committed to text. The question these studies attempted to answer was how could these long epics be memorized without a text? .Eng explains one of the answers found in the study: With [the epic totes] hexameters vocabulary, he could fabricate correct met racial lines without end, so long as he was dealing with traditional materials. (Eng 58) Epic oral poets had massive stores of ready-made, metered lines, and e equally massive banks of cliches and adjectives used to extol the virtues of the IR epic heroes. Since rap freestyles are improvisations, memorization and meter fitting have little or no impact on the composition of the lyrics. What concern ins freestyle artists most is rhyming the last syllables of the verses.To maintain lyrical I rhythm and rhymed verse, rap artists have an infinite store of urban slang and cliches that can be used to fit their rhyme schemes. Use of this array of vocal bulbar applies to freestyle and written verse. While try Eng not to break from their largely self-established rhythms Resembling the methods of oral p outs, rap music culture has established a vocabulary of slang and cultural refer once that is specific to the rap community, and is utilized freely by those with in it for artistic expression, as well as everyday communication.Rapper Punisher, in a freestyle done at a fast pace, exhibits the use of this type of extended communal language: Ill make it last with the cough got If not Ill blow your spot If notJoey Crack please load the clock Let these innings learn the hard way The word to God way The mother*censored*in murder mob way In addition to this extensive, community-specific vocabulary, rap acts such as Biz Marker and Dads VEX bend words and shatter established syllabic in order to f it their lyrical objectives.By using the extended language provided by rap culture, striving to fit lyrical or rhyming needs becomes a less formidable roadblock KC in the composition of written o r freestyle rap lyrics. Boasting or fluting by epic heroes is characteristic of oral epic poet rye from many oral cultures. This reciprocated verbal bragging is usually manifested in a competition between the hero and his adversary, battling to see who ca n boast the most effectively.These poetic exchanges serve the purpose of enforcer icing the heros Olympian stature, and of illustrating his skill in confrontation through the verbal battles. Walter Eng likens fluting to the Caribbean/African American verbal game called the dozensan exchange in which two men ping-upon g insults of each others mother back and forth. The thematic evolution of rap lyrics has led to rap artists often boasting of their own prowess in their rhymes.Cool G Rap paints a glamorous self-poor trait in his first solo album: And once again its big G Running the number rackets Wearing Apple jackets Fast loot tactics Im well up in the millionaire bracket Jacuzzi and saunas And eating steak at Banishes Bentleys limousine A front yard stream Thats full of piranhas Rappers extol their capabilities while laying their competitors to rest boasting about anything and everything, including lyrical skills, material lath, what weapons they claim to carry, their sexual activity, their ability to sell drugs or commit crime without going to prison, and the list goes on.With rap themes so often alluding to survival and individual prominence in urban life, rappers have, in a sense, become their own epic heroes. This theme applies so widely that the prolific rap artist often comes through as a prolific man in his lyrics. * P* In Black Noise, when Rose refers to specific rap lyrics, it is done most often to Stress the importance Of textually, authorship, and technology in the music. Rap lyrics are a critical part of a rappers identity, tryingly suggesting the importance of authorship and individuality in rap music. (Rose 95) Rose illustrates her point by using a dated L. L. Cool J song as her reference.In the lyrical excerpt the rappers identity is repeated several times, with boas ting strung throughout the rhyme. The lyrics complement what Rose has to say about authorship and individuality in rap songs; but in todays hip-hop world, such extreme egocentricity and identity propulsion in lyrics has become increasingly looked down upon and disregarded. Artists have a stronger sense of working WI thin a community today, I believe, than hey did three or four years ago. Indeed, rap artists often work to establish an identity through their lyrics, but tee actual authorship may not be as significant a motivation for this tendency as Ross e assumes.A characteristic of oral cultures and oral memory noted by Eng is the tee indecency of these cultures to slough off obsolete or dated components of tradition in order to make room for changing trends and information. As hip-hop cult re moved from the asss into the asss, certain elements of the culture were pushes d aside and forgotten, while others were remembered and maintained. In raps pa SST ten ears weve seen Performances come and go, gangster rap reach its apex, R UN D. M. C. s Aids make way for Simi n Weekends Timberlands, and KIRKS Ones 198 5 mm updated by the Beatings 1 993 Reign of the Etc. But little from the pa SST ever completely eludes the memory of rap culture. Rap has a strong sense of tradition for an art form created less than twenty years ago. Rose alludes to t he ability of sampling technology to assist in maintaining the past in rap music s present. Rap acts of today sample lyrics by Rake that were released ten yea RSI ago; although Rake hasnt made an album in four years, earning his sampled v choice today is not seen as a revival of a hip-hop image, but is taken for grant De as a continual interspersion of past and present.When rap artists perform for audiences, the link between the oral perform menace and a memorized text becomes blurred. The Dads will have the instrumental s from the mass-produced albums, but rappers rarely recite lyrics from the record deed songs verbatim. A rap artist might recite the hook, if the song has one, an d stick to a considerable portion of the original lyrics; but (like oral poets ) he will spontaneously toy with the lyricshow much and n what ways depends I argyle upon the performers mood and the audience on a given night.At a Tribe Called Quest show in 1994, rapper Fife was performing a popular track, but at a break in the track he substituted the album lyrics with something like Ill buy urn the house down like TTL. This lyrical alteration was a reference to a then- recent incident in which a member of female pop band TTL set fire to the mansion of her ex-romantic interest and N. F. L. Star Andre Orison. The reference was MIM dilate recognized, and the audience responded accordingly. However, with rap acts often falling into the web of chart-minded labels and management, rappers a re less able to Stray from their recorded product.When a rap act Sees one Of TTS records sky across the pop charts, their awareness of audience familiarity an d expectation reaches new heights as well. When the text of a song becomes IM printed on the minds of millions of people, rap acts become reluctant to break t hat chain of familiarity and identification. Mass- production technology often m taste raps oral expression into the readable, marketable form of a standardize d text. The notions of identity and tutorship in rap are largely attributable t o the wide-scale image marketing that characterizes the modern music industry.
Sunday, November 24, 2019
Thursday, November 21, 2019
Creation of a paper on how you would research a business sector and how you would structure a project report - Assignment Example ournemouth, Solar Simple Ltd in Worcester, Rain Wind Sun in Swindon, Green and Co Renewables in Rushden, Solar Power UK Ltd in Braintree, Impact Renewables in Leeds and numerous others scattered all over the United KingdomÃ¢â¬â¢s geography. (UK Renewable Energy Companies, 2012). These companies provide energy solutions to replace conventional energy forms, solar , nuclear and wind energy being a popular choices due to convenience. The Government has also taken an active interest in this sector due to gravity of the environmental threats currently facing the planet and thus the Government has committed itself to help businesses in this sector develop successfully. Their goal for 2020 is to achieve 15% of their total energy from renewable resources. Another reason why the Government is especially interested in the development of this sector is because it has generated great interest from foreign investors. In additional to the investment that this will bring into the UK, it will create a multitude of job opportunities. The UK however needs to improve its infrastructure to be able to deal with and reap the benefits of this investment. (The UK Renewable Energy Sectors, 2012). Research has shown that the UK will be able to reduce almost $17 billion of its per annum energy costs if it sticks to its renewable energy plan. Soon the Government will introduce a bill that will detail the fine print of this energy saving plan. (Hussain, 2012). It becomes quite clear that due to the immense foreign investment and jobs this sector is generating, it has a large scope in the business world. The size of the sector is also expected to grow into the foreseeable future as demand for alternative energy forms increase in the face of depleting resources of conventional energy forms and a growing awareness of the damage they have caused to the earth and its environment and how usage of clean, renewable energy is better for the planet and its people. Carbon emissions are expected to
Wednesday, November 20, 2019
Evaluate how an organisation implemented an information system (such as a CRM, SCM or ERP - Essay Example In the modern world with increased expectations from customers, relationship marketing has become an important factor in financial services. Therefore, the management function of banks needs to critically analyse those areas where prospects can be found owing to industry amalgamation, virtual distribution and the growing ability to transfer cash just with the snap of a mouse which has made it efficient for customers to shift their loyalty from one bank to the other. It is this necessity that has prompted many banks to establish a relationship with their customers by coming up with a well-managed system that ensures that banks fully understand their customers, retain existing clients through enhancedconsumer experience, remain attractive to new customers and gain new clienteles and contracts, increase cost-effectiveness and cut back on consumer organization costs. In this scenario, CRM (Customer Relationship Management) is an information system that presents an opportunity for banks t o develop concrete relationships with their clients who can then market their services through word of mouth, making it hard to change loyalty by switching to other banks among others (Hwang and Wen,2009; Kamakura et al., 2005). HDFC Bank, India, launched the use of CRM in 2008 to achieve its vision of Ã¢â¬Å"One BankÃ¢â¬ to enable it make available to the customers more information about the bank and attract new customers in order to boost its profitability and customer satisfaction. HDFC Company Profile and Porters Five Forces Analysis HDFC is a commercial bank based in India and is the largest private universal bank by market capitalization having a customer base totalling over 25 million, an elaborate distribution network consisting of 2,544 branches spreading across 1399 cities around the world. The bank also has a huge workforce with over fifty five thousand employees. For HDFC Bank to effectively apply its core competencies to achieve a profit above the industry average, i t is important to assess its potential for profitability and strategic position in the Indian banking industry. The Indian banking sector is defined by a high bargaining power of customers owing to the fact that banks provide uniform services. This is mainly due to the fact that nearly all banks strive to make available requisite information to their clients through such facilities as internet and mobile banking thus increasing buyer information availability and buyer price sensitivity. On the other hand, The Reserve Bank of India, the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s central bank and regulatory body, has created numerous regulatory standards and benchmarks which have to be met by banks. This in effect lowers the bargaining power of commercial banks in general and HDFC in particular. The industry is also highly competitive given the numerous numbers of public, private, foreign and cooperative banks offering financial services similar to those offered by HDFC. The availability of substitutes outside of the realm of common product boundaries of HDFC such as mutual funds, Government securities and T-bills increases the propensity of customers to switch to alternatives. Lastly, HDFC faces a low level of threat of new entrants to the industry due to the high number of banking regulations created by the Reserve Bank of India (Goyal and Joshi, 2012). CRM Customer Relationship
Sunday, November 17, 2019
Allegory of the Cave in Platos Book - Essay Example One question that thinkers need to answer in the allegory of the cave is; who is the liberator? The fact that this allegory had a symbolic meaning to the manner in which true knowledge is achieved, gives room for many thinkers to deduce that the Liberator is the philosopher. In fact, as one may realize, Socrates advised on the need for those who have seen light to go back and pass the very light to those in the darkness. This would mean, philosophers, taking responsibility in passing true knowledge to those who are yet to receive knowledge. First, Socrates claimed that the prisoners were in a locked cave, chained from birth and unable to move their bodies and could only stare straight at the wall of the cave. This situation would portray human being in the world of the unknown. Moreover, Socrates believed that a person had an inner knowledge that only needed to be shaped, rather than being taught by the teachers. That would be symbolic to the prisoner who only needed a springboard to let him make the first movement towards enlightenment. Secondly, the prisoners in the cave are portrayed as only able to see the shadows of real visible things (Bloom, 1991). This phrase would symbolize human being in the sense where they lack true knowledge of real things that exist. In such circumstances, people would reason under conditions of the depravity of knowledge and imagine that they know everything, yet the true knowledge is hidden from them. Nevertheless, when either the internal force or the external force triggers the already existing knowledge, they would come to realize the true knowledge and live in it. Some of the factors may prevent one from perceiving reality. One is the fear to accept the reality. Here, one may realize that most people would not like to accept the change and cope with it.Ã
Friday, November 15, 2019
Consultant Report For London Taxis International Limited This report is being produced to investigate whether a move towards electric vehicles will be beneficial to London Taxi International limited. This report has focused on PESTEL analysis, Political, Environmental, Social, Technological, Economical and Legal regions using SWOT (Strengths, weaknesses, Opportunities and threats) methods to analyse each of these regions. The political aspects to focus upon on making a change to electric vehicles are the implantations of the laws that benefit electric vehicles. One of the main regions these taxis operate around is London and the main disadvantage of driving in London is congestion charge the government has implemented a law that states that for electric vehicles congestion charges are to be scrapped. Generally per vehicle congestion charges implemented by transport of London is Ã £10 for the day and from the London Black cabs figures there is an assumption of 17000 licensed cabs on the road. Therefore within a year this company will be saving approximately in the region of thousands of pounds and making a profit on the electric vehicles they produce and sell as they are more attractive to purchasers. Continuing with the money this change would account for savings as an electric vehicle is immune from paying road tax because its emissions are below 100g/km under the new lows, this is one of the ways t o promote electric cars to more people, and in addition to that the electric vehicle is immune from the raising taxes put on petrol. The reason for rising the issue of Carbon emissions is due to new laws that are due to come into effect. The car currently being produced by London Taxi International limited would become obsolete as the TX4 is producing CO2 emissions of 233g/km. Therefore even if the switch to electric is not made a new car concept that produces less pollution will have to be considered. Finally as the government are constantly introducing new schemes to promote the electric vehicle they have offered grants for purchasing electric cars. The latest innovative idea by the government is to offer Ã £5000 towards the price of the electric vehicle. Therefore if we are producing electric vehicles consumers are more likely to purchase the electric vehicle over the existing model as along with the road tax, free parking and other schemes the government are offering will be saving a great deal more money in both the short and long term. Referring back to the SWOT method with the political aspects however laws in other countries consider electric vehicles as a hazard due to the fact they create no artificial noise. These countries have implemented a law that says all vehicles must make some noise for safety reasons. This makes cause a problem when approaching these companies with our new electric design. Considering threats to the political aspects of this report times are changing. Therefore at the moment the government are happy to promote electric vehicles in a positive light. However once the switch over happens, the reaction to electric vehicles may change as there may be an advancement that could show them to be hazardous. One of the biggest issues in the motoring these days is the environment which is being destroyed day by day. One of the main reasons for this destruction is co2 which as we know comes mainly from the use of fossil fuel in motor vehicles. There are new legislations concerning co2 emissions from vehicles and the European commission has issued emission standard known as euro 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and the Mayor of London has introduced a taxi emission strategy that requires all London taxis to meet at least euro 3. There is no debate on how electric vehicles help the economy and save money; but electric cars dont just protect your wallet. They also stop oil companies from drilling offshore or in environmentally protected areas. Offshore drilling is very hazards to the environment for example the Gulf of Mexico spill , and spills from ships such as the Exxon Valdez oil spill in Alaska, and the Torrey Canyon in the UK have illustrated the harm oil spills can cause to ocean-based ecosystems. Most people may not understand exactly how these alternative vehicles contribute to save the planet. One of the main problems to the environment is produced by using vehicles that depend mainly on fossil fuel. Not only that, there are other hazards materials that can harm the environment, like the batteries of the vehicle which after its been used fully it bosses a high risk to the environment and it has to be disposed of properly. LTI has been trying to reduce the use of hazardous substances to levels lower than those demanded by new European Legislation and the recyclability targets which came into force in 2006 are comfortably met. A number of components in LTI vehicles are already produced from recycled material and LTIs policy of promoting increased use of these materials will ensure the impact of their vehicles on the environment will be reduced. Also LTI has been thinking of a way to dispose of the hazards materials by using modern disposal facilitates that will do this in an environmentally friendly manner. LTI Vehicles has partnered with Auto green Ltd. Auto green, will take charge of disposing off disused LTI vehicles, and they will provide a contracted network of take back and Authorised Treatment Facilities (ATFs) throughout the United Kingdom. This process ensures that re-use, recovery and recycling targets are met. The economic factors include consideration of economic growth for the company, interest rates affecting cost of capital, exchange rates of exporting goods and finally inflation rates. All these factors affect how the company will operate and what decisions it will make. As we propose to the London Taxi Company a new electric engine concept for their taxis, we have to bear in mind what effects this will have on the company economically if they decide to go ahead with our idea. The advantages of our idea include that there is a small but stable market for the electric engine concept so large sale or purchases of supplies wont cause major changes; also the product is attractive to the company as it will cut down their running costs and hopefully increase profits. London Taxi Company has relationships with partners all over the world international relations. This is an advantage to the taxi company as the production rate of taxis will remain high as they supply electric taxis across the world to countries such as Egypt, Ghana, Kosovo and Lebanon. The company also has a number of European partners with plans to introduce the iconic London taxi to Rome, Milan and Istanbul. These all increase the companys economic growth. As London Taxi Limited already has international relations, they would need to keep ahead of their competition. If this is done, they would appeal more to customers for their greener vehicles and because the electric cars costs less to run. The taxi firms would also want the electric cars as they cost less to run than petrol vehicles. This means London Taxi Limited would sell even more electric taxis and therefore boost their capital and profit levels. Also when new laws on green house gases and co2 emission are introduced in the different countries, (such as America, South East Asia and Australasia) London Taxi Limited will appeal more to the taxi firms. This will give them a new business opportunity, especially if they have electric taxis that are known to be reliable. So London Taxi Limited would be the first choice for taxi production from taxi firms. The disadvantages with this proposition consist of costs of research and development, funding during conversion of petrol to electric engines and exchange rates affecting the cost of importing goods and the supply of exported goods to the international and European cities. As a result inflation rates could have either beneficial or detrimental effects in the long term. As the market for electric cars is fairly young, research and development into new and more efficient ideas is still being done which the London Taxi Company would be interested in doing to improve their electric engines generally. Concerning the conversion to electric for the whole production line, complete factories would need to be adapted to suit the installation of electric engines into the taxi cars. This process would be quite costly and might require borrowing of money to fund it. As exchange rates are fluctuating all the time, importing and exporting costs might have an effect on the business. The inflation ra tes depend on the country that is involved in business with London Taxi Company where, at the moment, inflation rates are highest in Ghana at 15 25 %. In short term, the process might be quite costly, yet if we look at the long run, these costs will only pay off eventually due to no fuel or running costs. The social aspect upon making this decision to change to electric is extremely important as the image is what will encourage both the public and consumers to change to or use electric vehicles. One of the main reasons LTI should convert their cabs to electric power is because although they do have a world renown image, that image is of a loud, expensive, heavily polluting vehicle. Converting their vehicles to electric power will hugely improve this image, reduce running costs and make them much quieter for running in tight residential areas, making taxi companies more likely to buy the taxis. For most emerging electric cars, such as the Nissan Leaf, the government provides subsidies to consumers who want to buy the electric car. If LTI are quick to enter the market, then this government subsidy may be offered to consumers wanting to buy the new LTI electric car. This would be hugely beneficial because taxi companies looking to buy taxis would see this and hopefully take action to get the reduced price while they can. The larger the city, the more pollution occurs due to more vehicles and industries emitting co2. If the taxis that run in the cities were powered by batteries, then a large chunk of these pollutants will be diminished, as well as setting the standard for the rest of public transport. Other companies will be demanding LTI to provide them with the cleaner taxis if they are the first to enter this niche market, which gives an excellent foothold for LTI to establish them in this growing industry. Also, if LTI have battery powered cabs, then they may attract the attention of environmental enthusiasts that would otherwise prefer to use other modes of transport, such as cycling or walking, thus creating a much larger customer base and hence higher revenue. Most people wanting a taxi in London will always choose black cabs over any other taxi model as London is largely associated with Black cabs; because black cabs an are large brand image of London. Therefore consumers will have a bigger market of not only tourists but environmentally friendly people may convert to using their service and therefore will increase LTIs production demand. However, the number of cities you see LTIs black cabs in isnt great. It tends to only be larger cities that have them so only a small percentage of people will get to use them on a regular basis. Smaller cities and towns will miss out, unless of course, LTI expand to more cities, which will be easily done with the reduced running costs of converting to battery power. A problem arises also when considering the current state of the economy. People and firms dont have enough money spare to take huge risks. Converting from combustion to battery is a large risk because so little is known about the market due to it being relatively new. Reliability and range are the main concerns, but also costs of a vehicle are breaking down are unknown. This uncertainty may be enough to deter consumers and result in a major loss to LTI. We looked at the technology side of using London Taxi International Limited within the electric car market. The first main point is that this is an innovative idea. It hasnt been done before and therefore will mean the company would get the upper hand over their competition as well as a new image as being a cleaner and greener company from their customers. This is because the electric cars wont be producing as much of their green house gases. Times are changing and electric cars are becoming better and more useful. So its a matter of time before the black cabs need to change. This will get the business a head start into it and get ahead of their competition. If the London Taxi Company accepted our proposal, the first step would be to possibly look into borrowing some money to kick off the process of buying new engine parts and installing them to the taxis (having trained up factory staff to a suitable level to carry this out) this would then involve interest rates which would be predetermined. Then make contact with suppliers for electric engine parts such as batteries and organise prices for shipping and handling. The third task would then be to change the taxi car production line and make all the brand new taxis electric with batteries. The TX4 has already proven to be a reliable vehicle that has a high level of performance with few problems. Therefore a whole new concept design will not need to be considered to change to electric and we are able to keep the main body of the car and only change the drive chain. The design of the TX4 is already owned by LTI and therefore there is no cost associated with keeping this design. As the TX4s shape and parts will still be produced and only the engine will be changed, the machinery that is already producing that car can still function as usual and therefore a massive change will not be needed and money will be saved. It is essential for LTI to create relations with companies that produce electric motors and are researching into the length of the battery life. This is important as the battery makes up a significant proportion of the cost of the car and will change the retailing price in which it is sold at. It wouldnt be sensible for LTI to develop a battery itself as they dont have the resources and experience in this field and as a small company could not invest the necessary capital. Batteries are hazardous and this will introduce new health and safety regulations in the factory which will incur the costs of retraining. The main disadvantages that could affect consumers wanting to purchase into electric taxis is the battery life. As electric vehicles are becoming more common technology is increasing to help sustain these electric vehicles batteries. London are considering introducing new underground charging stations that while parked at lights will charge the battery to help sustain its life. As this technological advancement is being placed around London it enables LTI to promote the electric vehicle without being worried about the length of the battery life. Also stations where you just drive up to change the electric battery, which is robotically manned, are being used by America currently. So as interest increases for electric vehicles in the UK this idea will possible be introduced into the UK giving more cause for electric cars. For private use electric cars are at a disadvantage because of their short range. This is why the electric car market is growing slowly. This is not an issue when the vehicle is being used as a taxi because taxis are almost never used for journeys longer than 10 miles. In the end its the companies wish whether to take an order of a bigger distance or not. Therefore the slow affecting market for cars to change to electric will not have the same disadvantages as taxis changing to electric. Research has shown that there wont be any technological issues when putting the new drive chain (electric motor) into the current taxi models. LTI has introduced a new hydrogen and electric hybrid vehicle to support the 2012 Olympics. The car keeps the ionic shape the London black cab but uses a combination of a fuel cell, powered by a tank of hydrogen, and lithium polymer batteries. This reduces LTIs worry that the TX4s shell would not be able to support an electric motor change. The electric motor has less power than normal petrol/diesel motors. However this should not affect sales as the car will be brought by private companies rather than individuals who would be concerned with performance. There are legal implications that LTI should consider when changing to electric motors. An electric car requires a special fast charging station in order to charge it fully in a matter of hours rather than days. These would require planning permission to be installed on a companys property or if a taxi company lease the property they would need permission of the owner. There could be some safety concerns associated with such a high voltage supply which could provoke the government into bringing in new legislations regarding these charging stations Another factor to consider when thinking about legal implications is such as problems with brake lights; one of the benefits of the electric car is that it uses the cars momentum when free-wheeling to recharge the battery. However a drawback of this is that the cars slow down a lot quicker in comparison to a regular free-wheeling car. Hence there is currently debate with regard to whether the brake lights should be on at such a time. The decisions of such laws should not affect the possibilities to use electric cars for London Taxis.
Tuesday, November 12, 2019
o/ > Chapter 01 Quiz Started onSaturday, September 8, 2012, 05:46 PM Completed onSaturday, September 8, 2012, 05:57 PM Time taken11 mins 17 secs Grade9. 00 out of a maximum of 10. 00 (90%) Question 1 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text Many insects do not see into the red color-range and as a result, many insect-pollinated flowers are colors other than red (e. g. , purple and yellow). This flower coloration would be considered a Select one: a. adaptation. b. gene. c. DNA. d. evolution. e. natural selection. Feedback The correct answer is: adaptation.. Question 2 Correct Mark 1. 0 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text Kevin is studying predator-prey interactions. One day he notices a spider eating a cricket caught in its web. Later that day, a bird eats the spider. How many populations are included in his study? Select one: a. 2 b. 0 c. 3 d. 1 e. 4 Feedback The correct answer is: 3. Question 3 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text The p rocess of _____________________ transforms solar energy into chemical energy. Select one: a. homeostasis b. metabolism c. photosynthesis d. reproduction e. respiration Feedback The correct answer is: photosynthesis. Question 4Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text In science, a theory Select one: a. cannot be tested. b. is held to be an absolutely correct answer to a question. c. encompasses many hypotheses. d. is tested by an experiment. e. is more narrow in scope than a hypothesis. Feedback The correct answer is: encompasses many hypotheses.. Question 5 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text A pond ecosystem includes small water fleas which feed on submerged aquatic plants. When the water fleas die, they sink to the bottom of the pond and where they decompose with the help of bacteria.List in order the producer, decomposer, and consumer in this system. Select one: a. bacterial, aquatic plants, water fleas b. aquatic plants, bacteria, water fleas c. aquatic plants, water fleas, bacteria d. water fleas, bacteria, aquatic plants e. bacteria, water fleas, aquatic plants Feedback The correct answer is: aquatic plants, bacteria, water fleas. Question 6 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text The various species of honeycreepers have an assortment of different bills, but all species have a similar size and body shape. This is an example of Select one: . descent with modification. b. adaptations. c. DNA. d. taxonomy. e. homeostasis. Feedback The correct answer is: descent with modification.. Question 7 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text Populations of amphibians, including frogs and toads, have been plagued by disease and high rates of deformity. A recent study investigated whether problems among the populations have arisen due to poisons from chemicals associated with agriculture. Biologists from the University of Florida collected local adult cane toads (Bufomarinus) from more t han 20 different locations.Toads were collected from areas close to agriculture; both large-scale and small-scale farms as well as from suburbs. At collection sites where 50-97% of the adjacent land was farmed, males showed high levels of feminization. Feminized male toads were similar in color to females and had lower levels of testosterone and often also deformed gonads. These changes can lead to sterile males or changes in behavior that prevent mating from occurring. In this study, what is the genus of the study animal? Select one: a. cane toad b. Bufomarinus c. marinus d. amphibian e. Bufo Feedback The correct answer is: Bufo. Question 8Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text Domain _______________ includes both unicellular and multicellular organisms. Select one: a. Eukarya b. Plantae c. Bacteria d. Fungi e. Protista Feedback The correct answer is: Eukarya. Question 9 Correct Mark 1. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text The smallest unit of life is a Select one: a. specie. b. tissue. c. organism. d. cell. e. organ. Feedback The correct answer is: cell.. Question 10 Incorrect Mark 0. 00 out of 1. 00 Flag question Question text Which of the following terms is not correctly matched with a correct example? Select one: a. mosquito feeding on a human host Ã¢â¬â community b. a rock garden with various plants and rocks of different sizes Ã¢â¬â ecosystem c. a spider Ã¢â¬â organism d. a herd of wildebeest Ã¢â¬â population e. a tropical rainforest Ã¢â¬â community Feedback The correct answer is: a tropical rainforest Ã¢â¬â community. Finish review Skip Quiz navigation Quiz navigation Question 1 This page Question 2 This page Question 3 This page Question 4 This page Question 5 This page Question 6 This page Question 7 This page Question 8 This page Question 9 This page Question 10 This page Finish review You are logged in as Moore Sarah (Logout) 2012FA-BIO-111-IX7
Sunday, November 10, 2019
Early Christian art was highly influenced by religious, political, and cultural changes. In contrast to the classical, idealistic portrayal of man, Early Christian art took a much more stylized approach to the depiction of man, with a neglected attention to human anatomy. The subject matter of much of the art turned from secular to religious; Christianity to be more specific. Constantine was the last emperor of the Roman Empire to hold undivided power. Under his rule, Constantine created the Edict of Milan, granting religious tolerance to all religions. This was of particular importance to Christians, who had been previously persecuted due to their spiritual beliefs. Because of the Edict of Milan, many Christian buildings were erected in addition to the many secular buildings that were transformed into Christian buildings. These buildings housed countless numbers of priceless religious artworks. One such example is the Transfiguration of Christ mosaic located in Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â ¢s Monastery in Sinai, Egypt. When Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople (modern day Istanbul), the Empire separated. Upon the division of the Roman Empire, Justinian, The Last Roman Emperor, held power over the Eastern Roman Empire from 527 to 565. Justinian was both a political and religious leader. Under his reign, many Christian buildings were constructed. Justinian often associated himself with Jesus Christ in the Byzantine artworks that these Christian buildings housed as a form of propaganda. The Orthodox Church now recognizes Justinian as a saint. Byzantine is a term used to describe eastern Mediterranean art from 330 to 1453, when the Turks conquered Constantinople (Strickland, 1992, p. 24). Mosaics were one of the most common forms of art during this period. They were intended to publicize the Christian creed through their religious subject matter (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). Byzantine mosaics are composed of small, colorful glass or stone squares and rectangles, called tesserae, embedded in wet cement or plaster. These tesserae were arranged in a manner through which they formed images. Typically, Byzantine mosaics are located on the walls and ceilings within a church apse and dome (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). The artists of these mosaics left the tesserae with jagged surfaces to create the sparkling, illuminated effect that distinguishes these mosaicsÃ from those of other periods and places (Strickland, 1992, p. 25). The exteriors of Byzantine Christian structures were very plain in contrast to the elaborately decorated interiors. The awe-inspiring mosaics and icons brought the focus of the buildings to the interiors. Perhaps this was a method to spread the word of God by attracting people to come inside the buildings. Byzantine Emperor, Justinian, ordered the construction of he Monastery of the Transfiguration, more commonly known as Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery because the relics of Saint Catherine of Alexandria are said to have been inexplicably transported there, at the foot of Mount Moses (Wikipedia, 2006). The monastery houses the Chapel of the Burning Bush, which was ordered built by ConstantineÃ¢â¬â¢s mother, Helena (Wikipedia, 2006). The Chapel of the Burning Bush is located at the site where Moses purportedly saw the burning bush (Wikipedia, 2006). Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery is now one of the oldest active monasteries in existence. The monastery survived Islamic dominance over the region due to a document that Mohammed supposedly signed himself, granting his protection over the monastery (Wikipedia, 2006). Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery allegedly gave Mohammed political asylum from his enemies (Wikipedia, 2006). In addition, a Fatimid mosque was built within the fortifications of Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery, thus creating further protection of the monastery from Islamic invasion (Wikipedia, 2006). Without the protection of Mohammed and the mosque, Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery would have been destroyed, and all of the irreplaceable artworks within its walls would have been lost. Byzantine mosaics contain many characteristics that distinguish them from the rest. The typical gold background of a Byzantine mosaic creates a sense of weightlessness within the figures, as if they are floating. Byzantine artists depicted sacred figures with halos, separating them from the other figures. With nude images having been forbidden, one can hardly make out the anatomy of the fully clothed figures. Though it is evident that symmetry was greatly appreciated, it is also evident that the mosaics lack perspective.Ã The figures depicted in the mosaics are flat and frontal facing with linear details. They are often slim with almond shaped faces and large eyes. The images depict little to no movement, creating a sense of stillness. These highly stylized Byzantine mosaics show disregard for Greco-Roman ideals. On an expedition set out by the University of Michigan in search of sites to excavate in the Near East, the staff spent five days at Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery (Forsyth, 1997). They discovered that the mosaics within the monastery had undergone little restoration since the time of Justinian (Forsyth, 1997). As a result, most of the works were in bad condition and on the verge of collapsing (Forsyth, 1997). Mosaic restorers came in to save the mosaics, which could have been lost forever (Forsyth, 1997). After they secured the mosaics, the restorers cleaned them (Forsyth, 1997). The mosaics now appear in their original state (Forsyth, 1997). One of the most known mosaics restored was the Transfiguration of Christ (Forsyth, 1997). The Transfiguration of Christ is located in the main church, Katholikon, in the apse over the high altar. The subject of this mosaic was an appropriate selection to portray in Saint CatherineÃ¢â¬â¢s Monastery because of its location at the foot of Mount Moses (Watson, 1999). In Christianity, the story claims that Jesus led three of his apostles, Peter, John, and James, to pray atop a mountain. It was here that Jesus transfigured, with his face shining like the sun and wearing bright white clothing. On both sides of Christ, Moses and Elijah appeared. Overhead, a brilliant cloud appeared, and GodÃ¢â¬â¢s voice emerged from the cloud proclaiming, Ã¢â¬Å"This is my Son, the Beloved. Listen to him.Ã¢â¬ It was then that Jesus spoke with Moses and Elijah about his upcoming death. The artist of this mosaic is unknown because artists went unrecognized until much later. This mosaic is in the form of a triumphal arch, bordered by medallions occupying the busts of the twelve apostles, fifteen prophets, Longinus the Abbot, John the Deacon, two angels, and a Greek cross in the top, center (Watson, 1999). Jesus Christ is depicted in the center of the mosaic with black hair and beard. He was placed in an oval mandorla with a cross and a bright yellow circle depicting his illumination behind his head.Ã Rays of light are shown coming from ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s body. In addition to the mandorla depicting ChristÃ¢â¬â¢s holiness, this was done to make Christ the emphasis of the mosaic as well as to distinguish him from the other figures. Elijah is shown on one side of Christ, while Moses is shown on the other. Beneath Christ, Peter, John, and James are portrayed with awe (Watson, 1999). The Transfiguration of Christ contains all the elements of Byzantine mosaics. It has a bright gold background. The figures are dematerialized and one cannot tell which figures were intended to be floating and which are not. One can hardly make out the figures beneath the clothing and the only skin shown is on the figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ faces, hands, and feet. All the figures were placed symmetrically around Christ, making him the focus of the mosaic. The halo and mandorla around Christ show his holiness. Only slight movement is shown through the figuresÃ¢â¬â¢ poses. The figures are very flat, despite the attempts of the artist to show shadow and overlapping. All of the figures are slender with almond shaped heads and large eyes. One can hardly see perspective when observing this mosaic. In conclusion, religion, politics, and culture had a significant influence on The Transfiguration of Christ, and all Early Christian art for that matter. With the Edict of Milan legalizing Christianity, the focus of art turned from secular to religious, changing the course of art forever. The Edict of Milan made it possible for Christians to practice their spiritual beliefs openly, leading to Early Christian art. Early Christian art can be credited with the spread of Christianity. One might wonder if Christianity would be as prominent as it is today had it not been for these artworks, or would it have died off a long time ago. Without Early Christian art, one might wonder when or how todayÃ¢â¬â¢s modern day art would have evolved.